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Posts published in “Colombia”

World: 10 Facts About Refugees

Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Afghanistan, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Myanmar, Somalia, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World

Refugees, asylum-seekers and displacement have i...

World: CrisisWatch July 2019

Source: International Crisis Group
Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Benin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Rwanda, Serbia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, the Republic of North Macedonia, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Western Sahara, World, Zimbabwe

Global Overview

In July, Libya’s war spread beyond Tripoli, and Iran and the U.S. continued to teeter on the precipice of military confrontation. Nigeria’s woes deepened as Boko Haram stepped up attacks in the north east, tensions rose between herders and farmers, and the government cracked down on Shiite Muslim protesters in the capital Abuja. In Somalia, Al-Shabaab ramped up attacks in the capital Mogadishu and across the south, and thousands took to the streets in Malawi to protest President Mutharika’s re-election and alleged electoral fraud. In Europe, tensions rose between Kosovo and Serbia with a senior Serbian official claiming Kosovo had denied him entry. On a positive note, the peace process in Afghanistan saw signs of progress, which could lead to the finalisation of a U.S.-Taliban agreement in August.

The war in Libya expanded. Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar’s military alliance pursued its campaign to take the capital Tripoli from forces nominally loyal to the UN-backed government based there. For the first time since hostilities erupted in April, government forces struck outside the Tripoli area, deploying drones to destroy enemy assets in Jufra and Waddan in central Libya. Haftar’s forces retaliated by striking the air base in Misrata, some 200km east of Tripoli, from where the drones launched. To end this destructive stalemate, international actors should press both sides to reconsider their uncompromising positions and accept an internationally-monitored ceasefire, followed by talks for new political, military and financial arrangements under a UN aegis.

Tensions continued to run high between Iran and the U.S., keeping them on the brink of military confrontation. Once sparked, such a conflict could spread rapidly across regional flashpoints and engulf their respective allies. In July, Iran breached limits on uranium enrichment agreed in the 2015 nuclear deal, and said it would accelerate its violations if the deal’s remaining parties did not by 6 September find ways to protect it from U.S. sanctions. Maritime confrontations continued, especially in the Strait of Hormuz. In a new report, Averting the Middle East’s 1914 Moment, we warn that in the absence of direct talks between the two sides, a small incident could blow up into a regional conflict. We urge third parties to intensify efforts to defuse the crisis, salvage the nuclear accord and de-escalate tensions.

Nigeria faced greater insecurity on several fronts. Ten years after Boko Haram’s founding father, Muhammad Yusuf, was killed in police custody, the radical insurgent group seemed to be on the offensive, stepping up attacks across Borno state and leaving scores dead, both civilians and security forces. In a recent report, we explain how one of its two factions, Islamic State in West Africa Province, is gaining influence by cultivating support among locals. The authorities will struggle to end the insurgency without a political strategy to supplement their military campaign, one focused on improving governance and services and ensuring that security forces are held accountable. Meanwhile, in the centre and south, herder-farmer tensions rose, partly over the government’s initiative to create temporary settlements for Fulani herders. And in the capital Abuja, security forces violently dispersed protests demanding the release of Sheikh Ibrahim el-Zakzaky, leader of the Islamic Movement of Nigeria. The government officially labelled the group a “terrorist organisation” and banned it.

In Somalia, the Islamist insurgent group Al-Shabaab increased attacks on civilians as well as Somali and international forces, killing at least 109. In the capital Mogadishu, a female suicide-bomber detonated her explosives in the mayor’s office, killing six people and injuring others including the mayor, who later also died. Al-Shabaab said the attack’s target was U.S. diplomat James Swan, recently appointed UN envoy to Somalia, who had left the building not long before. The counter-insurgency remains hampered by bitter feuding between the federal government and federal states over power and resources. In Malawi, protests against President Mutharika’s 21 May re-election picked up steam, and in places opposition activists clashed with ruling party supporters. Opposition parties and civil society groups claim the election was rigged and demand the election commission chair resign.

In Europe, tensions rose between Kosovo and Serbia. A Kosovar foreign ministry advisor on 4 July announced a ban on Serbian officials entering Kosovo, which a government spokesperson denied the next day. Despite this, Serbia’s defence minister said he was prevented from entering the country on 10 July, calling Kosovo’s leaders “liars”.

As violence in Afghanistan continued to take a heavy civilian toll, the latest round of U.S.-Taliban talks bore fruit on four critical issues: countering transnational jihadists, U.S. troop withdrawal, intra-Afghan dialogue, and a permanent and comprehensive ceasefire. This progress could augur the finalisation of an agreement in August. Moreover, for the first time Taliban and Afghan government officials met, albeit informally, to discuss a roadmap toward intra-Afghan dialogue. While these discussions constitute a step forward, whether and how this ice-breaker event evolves into substantive negotiations on difficult issues, including the state’s structure and power sharing, remains to be seen.

World: To Walk the Earth in Safety (2019): January – December 2018, 18th Edition – Documenting the United States’ Commitment to Conventional Weapons Destruction

Source: US Department of State
Country: Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Democratic Republic of the Congo, El Salvador, Estonia, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic (the), Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Palau, Peru, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, United States of America, Viet Nam, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

A Message From Deputy Assistant Secretary Marik String

This 18th Edition of To Walk the Earth In Safety summarizes the United States’ Conventional Weapons Destruction (CWD) programs in 2018. CWD assistance provides the United States with a powerful and flexible tool to help partner countries manage their stockpiles of munitions, destroy excess small arms and light weapons (SA/LW) and clear explosive hazards such as landmines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and unexploded ordnance (UXO). Our assistance also helps countries destroy illicitly-held or poorlysecured man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS) and mitigate their threat to civilian aviation and public safety.

In today’s dynamic world, threats to U.S. national security abound. The work carried out by the Department of State’s Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/ WRA) through its CWD programs is essential to protecting civilians and advancing our nation’s interests. From my work as a Reserve Naval Officer and as a staff member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, I understand the need for a robust effort to secure weapons so they do not fall into the hands of nefarious actors.

Stockpiles of excess, poorly-secured, or otherwise at-risk conventional weapons remain a serious challenge to peace and prosperity in many countries. Poorly-secured munitions are illicitly diverted to terrorists and other destabilizing actors. Explosive hazards continue to kill and maim people long after conflicts have ended, preventing the safe return of displaced people and suppressing economic opportunities that are crucial to prosperity and political stability. As long as these dangers persist, it is difficult for communities to recover from conflict.

Since late 2015, the United States and our partners in the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS have cleared IEDs from critical infrastructure in Iraq and Syria including hospitals, schools, and water pumping stations, facilitating the flow of hundreds of millions of dollars in stabilization assistance and humanitarian aid into liberated areas. In this regard, explosive hazard clearance serves as an essential enabler for follow-on stabilization and humanitarian assistance. CWD programs such as this lay the foundation for long-term benefits. U.S. humanitarian demining assistance to Vietnam began in 1993 and helped set the stage for our current bilateral relationship. In the near term, across Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, CWD programs focused on excess and poorly-secured weapons have helped keep those weapons out of the hands of criminals and terrorists.

Since 1993, the United States has provided more than $3.4 billion in CWD assistance to over 100 countries. In 2018, we had active CWD programs in 59 countries. These programs are implemented by commercial contractors, nongovernmental organizations, and international organizations.

United States CWD programs are tied to key U.S. foreign policy priorities and play a direct role in keeping U.S. citizens and our allies safe, while also clearing the way for a stable, secure, and prosperous future in countries that are key to U.S. security interests. Thanks to the U.S. Congress’ bipartisan support and generosity of the American people, we can attest that our goal remains a future in which all may walk the earth in safety.

MARIK STRING
Deputy Assistant Secretary
Political-Military Affairs

World: International Activity Report 2018

Source: Médecins Sans Frontières
Country: Afghanistan, Angola, Armenia, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Italy, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nauru, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Russian Federation, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

THE YEAR IN REVIEW

By Dr Marc Biot, Dr Isabelle Defourny, Marcel Langenbach, Kenneth Lavelle, Bertrand Perrochet and Teresa Sancristoval, Directors of Operations

In 2018, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) teams provided medical and humanitarian assistance to people facing extreme hardship in over 70 countries. From treating war-wounded ever closer to frontlines in Yemen, to responding to epidemic outbreaks such as cholera in Niger, or providing assistance to people fleeing violence in the Central African Republic, emergency response continued to be a core part of our work.

As 2018 drew to a close, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) was in the midst of its second Ebola outbreak of the year, and its biggest ever. MSF was part of the response, led by the Ministry of Health. Although rapid and well-resourced, with teams having access to a promising new vaccine and several new drugs with the potential to better protect and treat people, the response, and those managing it, failed to adapt to people’s priorities, and to gain the trust of the community. This lack of trust in the health services meant people delayed or avoided seeking treatment. By the end of the year, the epidemic in North Kivu and Ituri provinces had claimed more than 360 lives and in some areas was still not under control.

Seeking care in war zones

Early in the year, Syrian civilians and medical staff were caught in the violence in Idlib, in the northwest, and in East Ghouta, near the capital Damascus. In East Ghouta, the barrage was relentless in February and March, with waves of dead and injured arriving at MSF- supported hospitals and health posts. As the siege blocked incoming aid, medical staff had few medical supplies to work with. By the end of the offensive, 19 of the 20 hospitals and clinics we supported were destroyed or abandoned, leaving civilians with few options to seek medical help.

The war in Yemen, which has left the country and its healthcare system in ruins, entered its fourth year. The Saudi- and Emirati-led coalition continued to target civilian areas with airstrikes and bombings, including our new cholera treatment centre in Abs. The war is taking a heavy toll on people, who often must negotiate constantly changing frontlines to find care for their war- wounds or their general medical needs. Yemen was the country where our teams treated the highest number of war-wounded in 2018, over 16,000 people. After a major offensive was launched in Hodeidah in June, doctors in our Aden hospital treated Hodeidah residents who had been driven for six hours, the majority of them in a critical condition. Conflict intensified on several frontlines at the end of the year, leading to an influx of people with war-related injuries. We also treated more than 150 people wounded by mines planted by Houthi-led Ansar Allah troops around Mocha. Constant attacks on our staff and patients at facilities in Ad Dhale forced us to withdraw from the town in November.

World: Protecting and supporting internally displaced children in urban settings

Source: UN Children's Fund, Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
Country: Afghanistan, Colombia, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Honduras, Libya, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, World

At the end of 2018, over 17 million children were internally displaced by conflict or violence, and millions more by disasters or other causes.

Within a global context of increasing urbanisation, towns and cities are becoming a major refuge for displaced populations, including children. Displaced children and their families in urban settings may find it difficult to access basic services, including housing, protection and education. Yet urban areas also present opportunities for the displaced, as well as host communities, to thrive when the right policies are in place.

Critical to addressing the challenges faced by internally displaced children and youth are local investment and policies that explicitly include them in local and national plans and budgets for services. This policy brief, co-authored with UNICEF, explores the specific challenges internally displaced children face in urban areas and provides recommendations for actors at the local, national and international level.

Libya: Security Council Report Monthly Forecast, July 2019

Source: Security Council Report
Country: Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Central African Republic, Colombia, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, occupied Palestinian territory, Peru, Serbia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Yemen

Overview

Peru has the presidency in July. It is planning a briefing under the agenda item “peacebuilding and sustaining peace” focused on strengthening partnerships for nationally owned transitions. Peru’s Foreign Minister Néstor Popolizio is expected to chair the session. In addition, Peru plans to hold an open debate on the link between terrorism and organised crime and a debate on strengthening cooperation between the Council, the Secretariat and the troop- and police-contributing countries in peacekeeping operations. There will also be a briefing on implementing the “youth, peace and security” agenda.

There will be an annual debate on the International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals, which was established in 2010 to carry out the remaining essential functions of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia after their respective closures.

A visiting mission to Colombia is planned for the middle of the month, with a briefing and consultations by the head of the UN Verification Mission in Colombia on the Secretary-General’s 90-day report scheduled for later in the month.

There will be consultations on Haiti on the 90-day report and the transition of MINUJUSTH to the United Nations Integrated Office in Haiti (BINUH), a special political mission that will start on 16 October.

Regarding Europe, the mandate of the UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus will be renewed this month, ahead of which there will be a TCC meeting and consultations. There may also be a briefing on Ukraine.

African issues that will be considered this month are:

• Democratic Republic of the Congo, an update on MONUSCO; and

• Libya, an update on UNSMIL and the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee.
Regarding Middle East issues, an update on Yemen on the UN Mission to support the Hodeidah Agreement (UNMHA) is anticipated in July.

The Council is also expected to renew the mandate of UNMHA, which expires on 16 July.
Other Middle East issues this month include:

• Israel/Palestine, the quarterly open debate on the Middle East;

• Lebanon, an update on the implementation of resolution 1701, which called for a cessation of hostilities between the Shi’a militant group Hezbollah and Israel in 2006; and • Syria, the monthly briefings on the humanitarian situation, the political process and the use of chemical weapons.

Regarding UN regional offices, there will be updates on UNRCCA in Central Asia and UNOWAS in West Africa.

The Council will be watching developments in Iran, Myanmar and Sudan.

World: World Bank Group Support in Situations Involving Conflict-Induced Displacement – An Independent Evaluation

Source: World Bank
Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Georgia, Guinea, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Montenegro, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, the Republic of North Macedonia, Timor-Leste, Turkey, Uganda, World, Yemen, Zambia

Highlights

  • In 2016, the World Bank Group stepped up its engagement in situations of conflictinduced forced displacement at the global and country levels and adopted a new approach to its engagement that recognizes displacement as a development challenge that must be addressed to attain the World Bank Group’s twin goals.

  • Since fiscal year 2016, the Bank Group’s analytical, financial, and operational support has become more aligned with its stated development approach building on lessons from past engagements. This is an important shift.

  • Advisory services and analytics have shifted from providing a rationale for Bank Group engagement in situations involving conflictinduced forced displacement to contextspecific needs assessments focused on evidence-based, medium-term solutions.
    The World Bank successfully mobilized new financing to support situations involving conflict-induced forced displacement and crowded-in funding from other donors. World Bank support for populations forcibly displaced by conflict and their host communities has increased, become more balanced, and focused on priority sectors to
    generate economic opportunities. These are significant achievements.

  • At the same time, the Bank Group has not yet fully leveraged its comparative
    advantages in implementing its development approach. Evidence generated
    from analytical and advisory services needs to be translated better into
    context-specific policy dialogue, project design, and programming.
    Project design, in particular, could further address the specific needs and
    vulnerabilities of conflict-induced forcibly displaced persons and their host
    communities, especially the specific needs and vulnerabilities of the women
    and children among them. Projects should also more systematically include
    specific indicators to monitor and evaluate the effects on affected populations.

  • The World Bank engages and coordinates with humanitarian actors and
    development organizations at various levels, but coordination could be further
    strengthened. Additionally, select partnerships at the country level could be
    leveraged to ensure sector coherence and to foster policy dialogue to enact
    institutional reforms toward self-reliance that address the vulnerabilities of
    forcibly displaced persons. The Bank Group could also increase engagement
    to catalyze the private sector’s role in situations of conflict-induced forced
    displacement.

  • Internal and external factors inhibit the Bank Group’s development
    response to address situations of conflict-induced forced displacement.
    Internal factors include varying levels of active leadership in Country
    Management Units, growing but still limited Bank Group experience, and
    incentives. External factors include the varying nature of displacement
    situations, government capacity, macroeconomic and development
    challenges, and complex political economy factors.

World: Tendencias global desplazados forzosos en 2018

Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Germany, Guatemala, Honduras, Iraq, Malaysia, Mexico, Myanmar, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, United States of America, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World

CAPÍTULO 1 Introducción

**El mundo actual tiene una población de 70,8 millones de desplazados forzosos. **

A lo largo de la última década, la población global de desplazados forzosos creció sustancialmente de 43,3 millones de 2009 a 70,8 millones en 2018 y alcanzó una cifra récord [gráfico 1]6. La mayor parte de este aumento se dio entre 2012 y 2015, provocado sobre todo por el conflicto sirio. Pero otros conflictos en distintas zonas también contribuyeron a este aumento, incluidos los de Irak y Yemen en Oriente Medio, la República Democrática del Congo (RDC) y Sudán del Sur en el África subsahariana, así como la llegada masiva de refugiados rohingya a Bangladesh a final de 2017.

En 2018 cabe destacar particularmente el aumento del número de desplazados por los desplazamientos internos de Etiopía y las nuevas solicitudes de asilo de personas que huían de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela. La proporción de población mundial desplazada también siguió subiendo, dado que el aumento de la población desplazada por la fuerza rebasó el crecimiento de la población mundial. En 2017, esta cifra era de una de cada 110 personas, pero en 2018 resultó en una de cada 1087 . En comparación, hace una década la cifra era de una de cada 160 [gráfico 2]. En total, la población refugiada bajo el mandato de ACNUR casi se ha duplicado desde 2012.

Durante 2018 se desplazó un gran número de personas. A lo largo del año, 13,6 millones de personas fueron nuevos desplazados, incluidas aquellas que buscaban protección en el extranjero (como solicitantes de asilo o bien como refugiados recién registrados)8 y 10,8 millones que fueron forzadas a huir pero permanecieron en sus países9.

Estos 13,6 millones de nuevos desplazamientos promediaron 37.000 nuevos desplazamientos diarios durante 2018 [gráfico 3]. Muchas otras personas regresaron a sus países o zonas de origen para tratar de retomar sus vidas, incluidos 2,3 millones de desplazados internos y cerca de 600.000 refugiados.

Con 1.560.800, los etíopes fueron el mayor grupo de desplazados durante el año, el 98% de ellos dentro de sus fronteras. Esto duplicó de largo en el país la población desplazada internamente.
Los sirios fueron la siguiente comunidad de nuevos desplazados, con 889.400 durante 2018. De ellos,

632.700 fueron nuevos desplazados (o nuevos registrados) fuera del país10, mientras los restantes fueron desplazados internos. Nigeria también tuvo un alto número de población desplazada, con 661.800, de los cuales se estima que 581.800 lo hizo internamente.

Entre los nuevos desplazados transfronterizos (o nuevos registrados), la gran mayoría permaneció cerca de sus hogares. En 2018, más de medio millón de nuevos registros de refugiado y solicitudes de asilo provinieron de la República Árabe de Siria, y la mayoría de ellos tuvieron lugar en Turquía [gráfico 4]. Ese número incluye tanto a los recién llegados como a quienes permanecían en el país en momentos previos al registro. Los venezolanos representaron el segundo mayor número de desplazamientos internacionales en 2018, con 341.800 nuevas solicitudes de asilo (véase la página 24 para más detalles sobre la situación de Venezuela). Los sursudaneses fueron el siguiente grupo de solicitantes de asilo, principalmente en Sudán y Uganda, seguidos de quienes dejaron la RDC, por lo general rumbo también a Uganda.

A final de 2018, los sirios siguieron siendo la mayor comunidad de desplazados forzosos, con 13 millones de personas, incluidos 6 654 000 refugiados, 6 184 000 desplazados internos y 140 000 solicitantes de asilo. Los colombianos fueron el segundo mayor grupo, con 8 millones de desplazados forzosos al cabo del año, la mayor parte de ellos (98%) dentro de su país11. Un total de 5,4 millones de congoleses de la RDC eran también desplazados forzosos, entre ellos 4.517.000 desplazados internos y 854.000 refugiados o solicitantes de asilo. Otras grandes poblaciones desplazadas a finales de 2018 – aquellas con más de 2 millones de personas desplazadas, ya sea internamente o como refugiados o solicitantes de asilo– fueron la de Afganistán (5,1 millones), Sudán del Sur (4,2), Somalia (3,7), Etiopía (2,8), Sudán (2,7), Nigeria (2,5), Irak (2,4) y Yemen (2,2).

En Camerún, la situación fue compleja debido a que fue un país de acogida y también de origen de refugiados y de solicitantes de asilo, y además, en 2018 se dieron desplazamientos internos múltiples. En total hubo 45.100 refugiados cameruneses a final del año. La mayoría de ellos fueron acogidos por Nigeria (32.800), lo que contrasta con los sólo 100 que había en el país a principios de año. Esto hay que añadirlo a los 668.500 desplazados internos, mayoritariamente en las regiones del sur, noroeste y extremo norte. Al mismo tiempo, Camerún acogió a 380.000 refugiados, principalmente de la República Centroafricana (RCA) (275 .000) y Nigeria (102.300).
Sin la protección de familiares, los menores no acompañados o separados están a menudo en riesgo de abuso y explotación. La falta de información y datos sobre ellos es un problema clave. El número reportado de esos menores que solicitó asilo durante el año fue de 27.600. A finales de año, entre la población refugiada fueron reportados 111.000 menores no acompañados o separados12. Estas cifras son a la baja dado el número limitado de países que proveen de ese dato.

Los retornos continúan siendo una pequeña parte de los desplazamientos y no superaron a los nuevos desplazamientos. Cerca de 593.800 refugiados regresaron a sus países de origen en 2018 frente a los 667.400 de 2017, menos de un 3% de la población refugiada. Además, 2,3 millones de desplazados internos regresaron en 2018, frente a 4,2 en 2017. En ciertos casos, refugiados y desplazados internos regresaron a situaciones en las que las condiciones no permitían retornos seguros ni sustentables.
La reubicación fue una solución para cerca de 92.400 refugiados.
En 2018, el Grupo de Expertos en Estadísticas sobre Refugiados y Desplazados Internos (EGRIS) presentó los resultados de su trabajo en la 49ª sesión de la Comisión de Estadística de Naciones Unidas. Establecido en 2016 por la comisión, el EGRIS tiene como labor abordar los desafíos que plantea la recolección, elaboración y diseminación de estadísticas sobre los refugiados, solicitantes de asilo y desplazados internos, incluida la falta de terminología uniforme y las dificultades para comparar internacionalmente las estadísticas.

La comisión:
• ratificó las recomendaciones internacionales sobre estadísticas de refugiados
• avaló el reporte técnico sobre estadísticas de desplazados internos y apoyó la propuesta para tomar en cuenta este trabajo y desarrollar recomendaciones formales, y
• reafirmó el mandato de elaborar un manual para recopiladores de estadísticas sobre refugiados y desplazados internos que sirva de guía práctica para las recomendaciones.

Además de los 40 países que participaron en el EGRIS y de aquellos que colaboraron a través de consultas globales en 2017, otros muchos representantes nacionales tomaron la palabra en la Comisión Estadística para dar la bienvenida a este trabajo. Algunas áreas del trabajo recibieron especial atención, como la mayor importancia dada a la coordinación y el papel clave de las oficinas nacionales de estadística, o la inclusión del potencial de otras fuentes de información y otras metodologías en las recomendaciones.

World: UNHCR Global Trends: Forced Displacement in 2018

Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Germany, Guatemala, Honduras, Iraq, Malaysia, Mexico, Myanmar, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, United States of America, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World

CHAPTER 1 Introduction

The world now has a population of 70.8 million forcibly displaced people

Over the past decade, the global population of forcibly displaced people grew substantially from 43.3 million in 2009 to 70.8 million in 2018, reaching a record high [Figure 1].6 Most of this increase was between 2012 and 2015, driven mainly by the Syrian conflict. But conflicts in other areas also contributed to this rise, including in the Middle East such as in Iraq and Yemen, parts of sub-Saharan Africa such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and South Sudan, as well as the massive flow of Rohingya refugees to Bangladesh at the end of 2017.

Of particular note in 2018 was the increase in the number of displaced people due to internal displacement in Ethiopia and new asylum claims from people fleeing the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The proportion of the world’s population who were displaced also continued to rise as the increase in the world’s forcibly displaced population outstripped global population growth. In 2017 this figure was 1 out of every 110 people but in 2018 it stood at 1 out of every 108 people.7 A decade ago, by comparison, this stood at about 1 in 160 people [Figure 2]. Overall, the refugee population under UNHCR’s mandate has nearly doubled since 2012.

Large numbers of people were on the move in 2018. During the year, 13.6 million people were newly displaced, including 2.8 million who sought protection abroad (as new asylum-seekers or newly registered refugees)8 and 10.8 million who were forced to flee but remained in their own countries.9 These 13.6 million new displacements equated to an average rate of 37,000 people being newly displaced every day of 2018 [Figure 3].

Still, many others returned to their countries or areas of origin to try to rebuild their lives, including 2.3 million internally displaced people and nearly 600,000 refugees.
At 1,560,800, Ethiopians made up the largest newly displaced population during the year, 98 per cent of them within their country. This increase more than doubled the existing internally displaced population in the country.

Syrians were the next largest newly displaced population, with 889,400 people during 2018. Of these, 632,700 were newly displaced (or newly registered) outside the country,10 while the remainder were internally displaced. Nigeria also had a high number of newly displaced people with 661,800, of which an estimated 581,800 were displaced within the country’s borders.
Among those newly displaced across borders (or newly registered), the vast majority remained close to home. Over half a million new refugee registrations and asylum applications originated from the Syrian Arab Republic (Syria) in 2018, the majority in Turkey [Figure 4], representing both newly arriving individuals and those already in the country for a period of time prior to the time of registration. Venezuelans accounted for the second largest flow of new international displacements in 2018, with 341,800 new asylum applications (see page 24 for more details on the Venezuela situation). South Sudanese accounted for the next largest refugee and asylum-seeker flow, mainly to Sudan and Uganda, followed by such flows from DRC, also mainly to Uganda.

At the end of 2018, Syrians continued to be the largest forcibly displaced population, with 13.0 million people living in displacement, including 6,654,000 refugees, 6,184,000 internally displaced people (IDPs) and 140,000 asylumseekers. Colombians were the second largest group, with 8.0 million forcibly displaced, most of them (98 per cent) inside their country at the end of 2018.11 A total of 5.4 million Congolese from DRC were also forcibly displaced, of whom 4,517,000 were IDPs and 854,000 were refugees or asylumseekers.

Other large displaced populations at the end of 2018 – those with over 2.0 million people displaced, either internally or as refugees or asylum-seekers – were from Afghanistan (5.1 million), South Sudan (4.2 million), Somalia (3.7 million), Ethiopia (2.8 million), Sudan (2.7 million),
Nigeria (2.5 million), Iraq (2.4 million) and Yemen (2.2 million).

The situation in Cameroon was complex as it was both a source country and host country of refugees and asylum-seekers. In addition, it was confronted with multiple internal displacements in 2018. In total, there were 45,100 Cameroonian refugees globally at the end of 2018; they were mainly hosted by Nigeria (32,800), compared with less than 100 in that country at the beginning of the year. This is in addition to 668,500 IDPs, mainly within the South, North West and the Far North regions of Cameroon. At the same time, Cameroon hosted 380,300 refugees, mainly from the Central African Republic (CAR) (275,700) and Nigeria (102,300).

Without the protection of family, unaccompanied and separated children are often at risk of exploitation and abuse. A key issue is the lack of information and data regarding this population. The number of such children reported as having applied for asylum during 2018 was 27,600 during the year. At the end of 2018, 111,000 unaccompanied and separated children were reported among the refugee population.12 These figures are underestimates due to the limited number of countries reporting data.

Returns continued to account for a small proportion of the displaced population and did not offset new displacements. Some 593,800 refugees returned to their countries of origin in 2018 compared with 667,400 in 2017, less than 3 per cent of the refugee population. In addition, 2.3 million IDPs returned in 2018, compared with 4.2 million in 2017. In some cases, refugees and IDPs went back to situations where conditions did not permit safe and sustainable returns. Resettlement provided a solution for close to 92,400 refugees.

In 2018, the Expert Group on Refugee and IDP Statistics (EGRIS) presented the results of its work at the 49th session of the UN Statistical Commission. Established in 2016 by the Commission, EGRIS is tasked with addressing challenges associated with the collection, compilation and dissemination of statistics on refugees, asylum-seekers and IDPs, including the lack of consistent terminology and difficulties in comparing statistics internationally.

The Commission:
- endorsed the International Recommendations on Refugee Statistics;
- endorsed the Technical Report on Statistics of IDPs and supported the proposal to upgrade this work to develop formal recommendations; and
- reaffirmed the mandate to develop a compiler’s manual on refugee and IDP statistics to provide hands-on guidance for the recommendations.

In addition to the 40 countries that took part in the EGRIS and those that had also contributed through the global consultations in 2017, several country representatives took the floor at the Statistical Commission to welcome this work.

Certain elements of the work received particular support such as focusing on the importance of coordination and the central role of national statistical offices, as well as including the potential of different data sources and methodologies within the recommendations.

World: Annual Report 2018

Source: International Committee of the Red Cross
Country: Bangladesh, Cameroon, Chad, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Iraq, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, World, Yemen

MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT

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World: Jesuit Refugee Service Annual Report 2018

Source: Jesuit Refugee Service
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burundi, Central African Republic, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Iraq, Malawi, Mexico, Myanmar, Nigeria...

World: 100 Years of Fighting for Children – Annual report 2018

Source: Save the Children
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Kenya, Lebanon, Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Rep...

World: IOM Washington Newsletter, April – May 2019

Source: International Organization for Migration
Country: Bangladesh, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, South Sudan, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World

Headlines

IOM Washington Chief Joins Expert Panel on the Venezuelan Migration Response in Colombia

On April 9, the International Republican Institute and Sayara International hosted a panel discussion on the effects of the Venezuelan migrant crisis in Colombia. IOM Washington Chief of Mission Luca Dall'Oglio IOM provided an overview of trends in the region and its response through the inter-agency coordination platform. To learn more, contact Liz Lizama.

Niger National Police breaks ground on new headquarters building

Construction of a new headquarters building for the Directorate of Territorial Surveillance began on April 17. The new headquarters is part of a project funded by the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs of the U.S. Department of State and implemented by IOM Niger to strengthen border police capabilities. Read more

Students Debate Resolutions to End Modern Slavery at Model UN Conference

More than 600 middle and high school students, educators, volunteers and guests participated in the 15th Annual Spring Model UN Conference held at the U.S. Department of State on April 26. The event hosted by Global Classrooms DC (GCDC), the flagship education programme of the UN Association of the National Capital Area (UNA-NCA), marked the culmination of a year-long partnership between UNA-NCA and USA for IOM, the nonprofit partner of the International Organization for Migration. The students discussed a number of global issues, including the migration-related topic of modern slavery.

Aid Workers Race to Prepare Bangladesh’s Rohingya Refugee Camps for Cyclone Fani

Bangladesh lies in one of the world’s most cyclone-prone regions. Extreme weather systems often form in the Bay of Bengal and head north, making landfall in northern India or coastal Bangladesh. In April, IOM responded to the threat of Cyclone Fani with cross-cutting preparedness programming, shelter strengthening, awareness raising sessions and capacity building of Mobile Medical Teams, among other activities.

Impact of Western Hemisphere Regional Migration Program Highl ighted during Costa Rica Visit

IOM recently welcomed staff from the U.S. Department of State's Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM) Office of International Migration during a monitoring visit in Costa Rica April 29-May 3 to assess the impact of PRM-funded activities. The visit highlighted the positive change in the capacities of government authorities to manage migration effectively, collect and analyze migration data, and identify trafficking victims. To learn more, contact Rachel Sanchez.

Up the River: Aid is gradually reaching remote communities struck by Cyclone Idai

Following the landfall of Cyclone Idai in Mozambique, many remote communities were devastated. With support from partners like USAID, IOM has assisted approximately 30,000 households with various shelter and essential household items, including 35,000 tarpaulins, 13,000 blankets and 4,000 kitchen sets.

USA for IOM Contributes $50,000 to Global Assistance Fund

USA for IOM, the nonprofit partner of IOM, remains committed to support victims of trafficking and other vulnerable migrants. With support from its generous donors, USA for IOM has granted $50,000 in the past year to IOM's Global Assistance Fund. This emergency mechanism provides immediate and comprehensive protection and assistance to migrants in vulnerable conditions.
Over the past decade, USA for IOM has granted more than $7 million to IOM programs, including migrant assistance, emergency response and post-crisis recovery

IOM South Sudan partner launches new Rapid Response Fund project

Supported by USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, IOM South Sudan manages the Rapid Response Fund (RRF) and coordinates with local organizations to swiftly implement specific emergency interventions. With the RRF, IOM partner MENTOR Initiative initiated vector disease control activities in preparation for the rainy season.

World: Rethink Child Soldiers: A New Approach to the Reintegration of all Children Associated with Armed Forces and Groups

Source: War Child UK
Country: Central African Republic, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, South Sudan, World

It's Time to Rethink Child Soldiers

War Child's new report, Rethink Child Soldiers, outlines how current efforts to reintegrate ex-child soldiers back into communities aren't good enough.

A dramatic overhaul of funding and responses are needed to tackle the global use of children in armed groups.

It's time to rethink child soldiers.

False Reality

Child soldiers are typically thought to exist primarily in Sub-Saharan African countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo.

But children are also recruited in countries such as Yemen, Iraq, Syria, Colombia and many others around the world.

Funding often reflects this false reality leaving big gaps in support.

Another stereotype is that recruits are forced into joining through abduction or seeking revenge.

But the fact is that many children join voluntarily, or because there’s high unemployment and poverty.

Current initiatives don’t do enough to address the root causes of recruitment or help non-combatant members leave groups before they become fighters.

Current Support is Insufficient

The reintegration and healing process required for an ex-child soldier must be stable and long-term.

Instead, funds and programmes can be irregular and short-term.

More importantly, children must be invited to participate to help us understand what works and what doesn’t when it comes to reintegrating ex-child soldiers.

A former child soldier from the Central African Republic told us: "The quality and quantity of support provided is insufficient. It does not address the expectations or needs of the children in the group."

Programmes must accurately reflect the needs of children.

Current programmes that help ex-child soldiers focus on helping combatants.

But many boys and girls in armed groups do not carry weapons and occupy other roles.

Being a cook, messenger or porter for an armed group has consequences of its own; it can lead to children being stigmatised or isolated.

This can also be the first step for a child becoming a fighter.

Violent extremism and anti-terror laws in countries like Iraq make children associated with armed groups seen as threats, and not children that simply need help.

Children are more likely to be denied helped and treated like perpetrators, not victims, in these contexts.

Research from the University College London confirmed that this sort of exclusion of children, instead of helping them, actually increases an individual’s chances of engaging in violent extremism.

In other words, the current ways don’t work.

Children need to be properly reintegrated.

Children who are associated with armed groups have very different experiences.

There is no one-size-fits-all answer.

War Child's report, generously funded by players of the People’s Postcode Lottery, calls on governments, donors, UN agencies and NGOs to move past basic stereotypes to increase better, long-term funding.

Only then can we truly help ex-child soldiers recover from their experiences.

World: Disaster Law Programme Annual Report 2018

Source: International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies
Country: Bangladesh, Belize, Cambodia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicaragua, Panama, Philippine...

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