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World: World Humanitarian Data and Trends 2018

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Haiti, Iraq, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, World, Yemen

Introduction

World Humanitarian Data and Trends presents global- and country-level data-and-trend analysis about humanitarian crises and assistance. Its purpose is to consolidate this information and present it in an accessible way, providing policymakers, researchers and humanitarian practitioners with an evidence base to support humanitarian policy decisions and provide context for operational decisions.

The information presented covers two main areas: humanitarian needs and assistance in 2017, and humanitarian trends, challenges and opportunities. The report intends to provide a comprehensive picture of the global humanitarian landscape, and to highlight major trends in the nature of humanitarian crises, their drivers, and the actors that participate in prevention, response and recovery. The 2018 edition builds on previous iterations of the report, providing an overview of 2017 as well as selected case studies that can be used for humanitarian advocacy. Previous editions of the report have featured a reference table showing selected indicators by country.
This table will be available online to facilitate exploring the data and performing analysis.

There are many gaps in the available information due to the complexity of humanitarian crises. Even the concepts of humanitarian needs and assistance are flexible. There are also inherent biases in the information. For example, assistance provided by communities and by local and national Governments is less likely to be reported. The outcomes and impact of assistance are difficult to measure and rarely reported. Funding data is more available than other types of information. There are also limitations on the availability and quality of data. Further information on limitations is provided in the ‘User’s Guide’.

The data presented in this report is from a variety of source organizations with the mandate, resources and expertise to collect and compile relevant data, as well as OCHAmanaged processes and tools, such as the inter-agency appeal process and the Financial Tracking Service (FTS). All the data presented in this report is publicly available through the source organizations and through the report’s own data set (available through the Humanitarian Data Exchange). Further information on data sources is provided in the ‘User’s Guide’.

World Humanitarian Data and Trends is an initiative of the Policy Analysis and Innovation Section of OCHA’s Policy Development and Studies Branch. This report is just one part of OCHA’s efforts to improve data and analysis on humanitarian situations worldwide and build a humanitarian data community. This edition of the report was developed with internal and external partners, whose contributions are listed in the ‘Sources and References’ section. OCHA extends its sincere gratitude to all those partners for their time, expertise and contributions.

Interpreting the visuals and data

The report uses many visual representations of humanitarian data and trends. There is also some limited narrative text and analysis, which provides basic orientation and helps to guide individual interpretation. However, there may be multiple ways to interpret the same information.

The ‘User’s Guide’ contains more detailed methodological information and specific technical notes for each figure. Readers are encouraged to refer to the technical notes for more detailed descriptions of decisions and assumptions made in presenting the data.

For the latest information on needs and funding requirements for current strategic response plans or inter-agency appeals, see fts.unocha.org/ .

Accessing the data and exploring the report online

All the data presented in this report can be downloaded through the Humanitarian Data Exchange (https://data.humdata.org/dataset/world-humanitariandata-and-trends). The report itself can be explored through its interactive companion microsite www.unocha.org/datatrends2018/ .

South Sudan: 15,000 children without parents or missing, five years after outbreak of fighting in South Sudan

Source: UN Children's Fund
Country: South Sudan

JUBA, South Sudan, December 13, 2018 – Fifteen thousand children remain separated from their families or missing, five years after conflict first broke out in South Sudan.
More than four million people have been uprooted by the fighting, the majority of them children. Since the conflict began UNICEF and partners have reunited close to 6,000 children with their parents or caregivers.

"Every reunification is the result of months and often years of work to trace missing family members in a country the size of France, but without any basic infrastructure," said Leila Pakkala, UNICEF's Regional Director in Eastern and Southern Africa. "The suffering children have endured during the fighting has been unimaginable, but the joy of seeing a family made whole again is always a source of hope."

Separated and unaccompanied children are more susceptible to violence, abuse and exploitation, which makes returning them to their parents an urgent priority. Even once reunited, many families continue to need support. Half of the reunited children – some 3,000 – are still receiving assistance from case-workers, putting the total number of children in need of support at 18,000.

A recently signed peace agreement between South Sudan's warring parties could provide an opportunity to step up this work and other humanitarian assistance.
"There have been encouraging developments on the ground since the peace agreement was signed," said Pakkala. "Our hope is that previously inaccessible areas will begin opening up, allowing us to deliver life-saving assistance to more people in the year ahead."
Since the conflict started, UNICEF and partners have:

  • Provided 1.5 million children with access to education

  • Supported the released of almost 3,000 children from armed forces and groups

  • Provided 800,000 people with access to clean water

  • Reached more than 1.4 million children with psycho-social support activities

  • Screened 1.5 million children for malnutrition

  • Supported birth notification for 550,000 newborns

  • Treated 630,000 children for severe acute malnutrition

  • Vaccinated almost 6 million children

Still, five years of violence and insecurity have taken a devastating toll on children in South Sudan. An estimated 1.2 million children are acutely malnourished – the highest number since the conflict began. Some 2.2 million children are not receiving an education, giving South Sudan the highest proportion of out of school children in the world.
For 2019, UNICEF is appealing for US$ 179 million for humanitarian assistance to children.
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Notes for editors:
Photo and video assets are available here.

About UNICEF
UNICEF works in some of the world's toughest places, to reach the world's most disadvantaged children. Across 190 countries and territories, we work for every child, everywhere, to build a better world for everyone.
For more information about UNICEF and its work visit: www.unicef.org/southsudan
Follow us on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram
For more information, please contact:
UNICEF South Sudan:
Tim Irwin, +211 912 62 888 tjirwin@unicef.org
Helene Sandbu Ryeng, +211 92 161 5824 hsryeng@unicef.org

UNICEF Regional Office for East and Southern Africa:
James Elder, +254 715 581 222, jelder@unicef.org
UNICEF HQ New York :
Joe English, +1 917 893 0692, jenglish@unicef.org

Democratic Republic of the Congo: Top 10 of 2018 – Issue #10: “Silent” Refugee Crises Get Limited International Attention

Source: Migration Policy Institute
Country: Angola, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan

By Sara Staedicke

Despite the major focus by media and publics on a handful of refugee crises around the world—the Syrian, Afghan, and Venezuelan ones among them, and recently Yemen—displacement situations worsened during 2018 in a number of countries that received much less attention, and perhaps as a result less in the way of humanitarian aid.

Arguably at the top of the list of neglected crises were the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), whose displacement rivals that of Syria even as it has received far less attention; South Sudan, where widespread starvation has set in; and the Central African Republic (CAR), where displacement reached record levels. Crises in Burundi, Ethiopia, Nigeria, the occupied Palestinian territories, and Myanmar also were eclipsed by others in 2018.

While issues involving refugees and asylum seekers headed to developed countries often attract the most attention, witness the massive coverage of the European migration crisis in 2015-16 or the current intense focus on the movement of several thousand asylum seekers from Central America to the U.S. doorstep, 85 percent of the world’s estimated 25.4 million refugees are in developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa is host to more than one-fourth of the world’s 68.5 million people forcibly displaced within or beyond their country’s borders.

Some African countries face critical humanitarian funding shortfalls and massive food insecurity; the crises in the DRC and South Sudan, where just 31 percent and 33 percent of international appeals had been funded as of September, were particularly highlighted as needing more resources. And a number of these countries are facing their own displacement crises even as they simultaneously host refugees from neighboring countries.

This article examines a few of these “silent crises.”

Democratic Republic of the Congo

As of October, an estimated 782,000 Congolese refugees and asylum seekers were hosted in neighboring countries, of which approximately 148,000 fled in 2018, particularly to Burundi, Uganda, and Zambia. While civil war ended in 2003, more than 4.5 million people remain internally displaced. The DRC also hosts more than 536,000 refugees from neighboring countries. Beyond ongoing displacement, the country is experiencing its worst Ebola outbreak, declared in August, creating a dangerous combination of conflict and disease. The conflict also has disrupted agriculture, putting 2 million children at risk of starvation. And more than 300,000 Congolese were expelled from Angola in October, accused of being in the country without authorization; at least 2,373 of these were registered refugees. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees has warned that this push of Congolese back to a desperate situation could quickly unravel into further crisis.

South Sudan

Since becoming the world’s newest country in 2011, South Sudan has faced violent conflict, drought, and famine that have displaced more than 4.7 million South Sudanese, including nearly 2.2 million to Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, and the DRC. South Sudanese became the third largest refugee population in the world in 2017, after Syrians and Afghans. Conflict, ongoing displacement, and drought have taken a toll on agricultural production with farm land abandoned, leaving 6 million in dire need of food assistance. With men caught up in the fighting, women and children make up 85 percent of South Sudanese refugees. Since 2013, civil war has also brought sexual violence, most recently in a November incident in which around 125 women and girls seeking food were beaten and raped. Despite a peace deal signed in August, the outlook remains grim as violence continues and food insecurity is predicted to worsen in the year ahead.

Central African Republic

Sectarian violence has spread since a coup d'état in 2013 and more than one in five residents have been displaced. Nearly 637,000 people were internally displaced as of November, 232,000 in the first half of 2018 alone, with more than 575,000 others having fled to neighboring countries. One in four children in the country is a refugee and “almost every Central African child needs protection from the fighting and its far-reaching effects.” Attacks against civilians, aid workers, and displacement camps are common. An increasing number of Central African Republic refugees are returning home, some to destroyed homes, and may lead to new conflict with existing residents.

Amid volatile conflict situations, mass food insecurity, and the possibility of an expanding Ebola outbreak, the complexity of conditions unfolding in parts of sub-Saharan Africa suggest the world’s eyes should not remain averted from these neglected crises

World: Aperçu de la Situation Humanitaire Mondiale 2019 – Version Abrégée

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Aruba (The Netherlands), Bangladesh, Brazil, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Curaçao (The Netherlands), Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mexico, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

Aperçu de la situation humanitaire mondiale

PERSONNES DANS
LE BESOIN 131,7M

PERSONNES DEVANT
RECEVOIR UNE AIDE 93,6M

BESOINS FINANCIERS *
USD 21,9Md

Tendances et défis mondiaux

Malgré les progrès du développement mondial, une personne sur 70 dans le monde est en proie à
une crise et a besoin d’assistance humanitaire et de protection d’urgence.

De plus en plus de personnes sont déplacées par les conflits. Le nombre de personnes déplacées
de force est passé de 59,5 millions en 2014 à 68,5 millions en 2017.

Les catastrophes naturelles et le changement climatique ont un coût humain élevé. Les
catastrophes affectent 350 millions de personnes en moyenne chaque année et causent des
milliards de dollars de dégâts.

L’insécurité alimentaire est en augmentation. En juste deux ans, entre 2015 et 2017, le nombre
de personnes confronté à l’insécurité alimentaire de niveau critique ou pire a augmenté de 80
millions à 124 millions de personnes.

Les crises exacerbent les inégalités entre les sexes. Dans les situations de conflit, les filles ont
une probabilité 2,5 fois plus importante que les garçons d’être déscolarisées.

Les crises humanitaires affectent un plus grand nombre de personnes et durent plus longtemps.
Le nombre de personnes ciblées pour recevoir une assistance dans le cadre des Plans de réponse
humanitaire (HRP) des Nations unies a augmenté de 77 millions en 2014 à 101 millions en 2018.

Les crises humanitaires durent aujourd’hui, en moyenne, plus de neuf ans. Près de trois-quarts
des personnes ciblées pour recevoir de l’assistance en 2018 se trouvent dans des pays affectés
par une crise humanitaire depuis sept ans ou plus.

Les organisations humanitaires réussissent de plus en plus à sauver des vies et à réduire les
souffrances mais de nombreux besoins restent encore sans réponse.

Malgré une augmentation importante des financements de 10,6 milliards de dollars en 2014 à
13,9 milliards de dollars en 2017, le manque de financement des plans de réponse humanitaire
des Nations unies stagne à environ 40%.

2018 est en passe d’être une autre année record pour le financement humanitaire. Au 19
novembre, les donateurs et partenaires avaient fait état de contributions de 13,9 milliards de
dollars aux Plans de réponse humanitaire par rapport à 12,6 milliards de dollars à la même
période l’année dernière.

Les niveaux de financement ont également augmenté. Au 19 novembre, le financement des Plans
de réponse était de 56% par rapport à 52% à la même période en 2018.

Le financement humanitaire mondial a atteint un nouveau summum de 22 milliards de dollars par
rapport aux 21,5 milliards de dollars levés en 2017.

Les crises majeures et prolongées reçoivent la majorité des ressources. Entre 2014 et 2018,
quatre crises – en Somalie, au Soudan du Sud, au Soudan et en Syrie – ont comptabilisé à elles
seules 55% de tous les financements demandés et reçus.

World: Global Humanitarian Overview 2019 – Abridged version [EN/AR/ES/ZH]

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Aruba (The Netherlands), Bangladesh, Brazil, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Curaçao (The Netherlands), Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mexico, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

At a glance

PEOPLE IN NEED 131.7M
PEOPLE TO RECEIVE AID 93.6M
FUNDING REQUIRED* $21.9B

Global trends and challenges

Despite global development gains, one in every 70 people around the world is caught up in crisis and urgently needs humanitarian assistance and protection.

More people are being displaced by conflict. The number of forcibly displaced people rose from 59.5 million in 2014 to 68.5 million in 2017.

Natural disasters and climate change have a high human cost. Disasters affect 350 million people on average each year and cause billions of dollars of damage.

Food insecurity is rising. In just two years between 2015 and 2017, the number of people experiencing crisis-level food insecurity or worse increased from 80 million to 124 million people.

Crises exacerbate gender inequalities. Girls in conflict settings are 2.5 times more likely to be out of school than boys.

Humanitarian crises affect more people, for longer. The number of people targeted to receive assistance through UN-led humanitarian response plans (HRPs) increased from 77 million in 2014 to 101 million in 2018.

The average humanitarian crisis now lasts more than nine years. Nearly three quarters of people targeted to receive assistance in 2018 are in countries affected by humanitarian crisis for seven years or more.

Humanitarian organizations are increasingly successful in saving lives and reducing suffering, but many needs still remain unmet.

Despite a significant increase in funding, from $10.6 billion in 2014 to $13.9 billion in 2017, the gap in coverage for UN-led humanitarian response plans hovers at about 40 per cent. 2018 is on track to be another record year for humanitarian funding. As of 19 November, donors and partners have reported contributions of $13.9 billion to HRPs, compared with $12.6 billion at the same time last year.

Coverage rates have also increased. As of 19 November, coverage for HRPs was at 56 per cent, compared with 52 per cent at the same time in 2018.

Global humanitarian funding has reached a new high of $22 billion, surpassing the $21.5 billion raised in 2017.

Large protracted crises command the majority of resources. Between 2014 and 2018, just four crises – Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Syria – accounted for 55 per cent of all funding requested and received.

World: Humanitarian Funding Update November 2018 – United Nations Coordinated Appeals

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Indonesia, Iraq, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

Launch of the Global Humanitarian Overview 2019 and the World Humanitarian Data and Trends 2018 At the end of November 2018, 21 Humanitarian Response Plans (HRP) and the Syria Regional Response Plan (3RP) require US$ US$24.93 to assist 97.9 million people in urgent need of humanitarian support. The requirements are lower than announced at the end of October ($25.2 billion) as those for Ethiopia have now been reduced. The plans are funded at $14.29 billion; this amounts to 57.3 per cent of financial requirements for 2018.

Two million less people are considered to be in need in Mali than at the end of October, hence the reduction in the overall number of people in need in this month’s overview.

Global requirements are $1.8 billion higher than at this time in 2017, and the amount of funding received is $1.69 billion higher than it was at this time last year.

On 4 December 2018, the USG/ERC launched the Global Humanitarian Overview 2019 and World Humanitarian Data and Trends 2018 at an event in the Council Chamber, United Nations Office of Geneva. The event was attended by almost 200 representatives of Member States, intergovernmental and international organizations, UN organizations and NGOs, and by the Red Cross movement, the World Economic Forum and specialized meteorological foundations. A recording of the event can be found here: Event in Geneva to launch the GHO 2019 and WHDT 2018.

Pooled Funds In 2018, as of early December, country-based pooled funds (CBPF) received a total of US$845 million, once again setting a new record in annual contributions. Generous support from 31 Member States, from one crown dependency and from the general public through the UN Foundation, continues to demonstrate a high level of confidence in this mechanism for reaching the people most affected by humanitarian emergencies. In the past year, CBPFs have allocated a total $695 million, with $81 million awaiting approval. The Yemen Humanitarian Fund (HF) remains the largest of the funds, with $187 million already allocated towards response to urgent humanitarian needs. The HFs in Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, South Sudan and Turkey each allocated over $50 million. Globally, three-fifths of all CBPF allocations were disbursed to NGOs, including 24 per cent ($170 million) directly to national and local NGOs. Another two-fifths were allocated to UN agencies, while Red Cross/ Red Crescent organizations received 1 percent of funding ($8 million).

Between 1 January and 30 November 2018, the Emergency Relief Coordinator approved $488 million in grants from the Central Emergency

Response Fund (CERF), including $308 million from the Rapid Response Window and $180 million from the Underfunded Emergencies Window.

The grants will support life-saving activities in 48 countries. In November, a total of $11 million was released to scale-up response to cholera in Nigeria and pneumonic plague in Madagascar, as well as to expand existing UN programmes in Venezuela in support of government efforts to increase essential health and nutrition services.

World: WHO AFRO Outbreaks and Other Emergencies, Week 49: 1 – 7 December 2018 Data as reported by 17:00; 7 December 2018

Source: World Health Organization
Country: Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Princ...

World: Minister for Foreign Trade and Development Virolainen: Finland grants EUR 5.45 million to alleviate crises in Africa and increases funding for the United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund

Source: Government of Finland
Country: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Finland, Niger, South Sudan, World

According to the recently published Global Humanitarian Overview, the estimated total need of humanitarian assistance in 2019 amounts to EUR 22 billion.

This means that 132 million people in approximately 40 countries are in need of emergency relief, the majority of them in Africa and the Middle East.

The world’s worst humanitarian crisis is currently in Yemen, but the situation is extremely difficult also in Syria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria and South Sudan.

"Unfortunately, the number of people in need of humanitarian assistance remains high, mainly because of protracted conflicts. Finland's aim is to continue effective and timely provision of support to people in distress even in difficult conditions," Minister for Foreign Trade and Development Anne-Mari Virolainen says.

In its funding decisions made towards the end of 2018, Finland paid special attention to Africa. Through these decisions, Finland supported the work of the United Nations Refugee Agency UNHCR in the Democratic Republic of the Congo by EUR 2 million, in South Sudan by EUR 1.5 million, and in Nigeria by EUR 1 million. Additionally, Finland granted EUR 950,000 to Ethiopia through the Red Cross. These countries are all suffering from internal and regional conflicts, and emergency relief is needed to save lives. Finland's support is needed because the large humanitarian assistance operations in Africa are under-funded and because Finland's funding decisions made earlier in the year focus on crises in the Middle East, above all on Yemen and Syria. Earlier this year, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs decided to grant EUR 100,000 to the Red Cross for it to be able to mobilise an emergency unit to Indonesia following the earthquake that hit the Sulawesi province.

In 2018, Finland's humanitarian assistance was EUR 72.5 million in total, of which the United Nations Refugee Agency UNHCR received the most support (EUR 20 million) while the Syria crisis was the biggest regional recipient of assistance (EUR 12.6 million). Finland's support for humanitarian assistance work in Yemen has been EUR three million this year.

The majority of the funding decisions for 2019 will be prepared at the beginning of the year. At the Annual CERF High-level Pledging Event in New York on 7 December, Finland announced that it will raise its funding for the UN's Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) by one million euros next year, after which the support will be EUR 8 million. CERF is a fund, which enables the provision of emergency response in the event of an urgent crisis and in cases where an operation is suffering from serious lack of funding. By way of example, this year CERF has allocated USD 50 million to humanitarian action in Yemen.

For more detailed information, please read about the recipients of Finland's humanitarian assistance in 2018: https://um.fi/documents/35732/0/humanitaarinen+apu+2018+%282%29.pdf/24c88d2e-a294-24a9-5425-712a20cbeb6b

Inquiries: Claus Jerker Lindroos, Director, tel. +358 295 351 234, and Pilvi Taipale, Desk Officer, Unit for Humanitarian Assistance and Policy, +358 295 350 322

The Foreign Ministry's email addresses are of the format firstname.lastname@formin.fi.

World: Crop Prospects and Food Situation, No. 4, December 2018

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Guinea, Haiti, Iraq, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Uganda, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

REGIONAL HIGHLIGHTS

AFRICA Beneficial weather conditions triggered production gains in East Africa and output rebounds in North Africa. By contrast, dry conditions curbed harvests in Southern Africa, while in West Africa, production is expected to revert to average levels. Conflicts in several countries of the region, notably in Central Africa, continue to acutely impact the agriculture sector.
ASIA Cereal harvests in 2018 declined to below-average levels in the Near East and CIS Asia, on account of rainfall deficits, while also ongoing conflicts in parts of the Near East continue to impede agricultural activities. Aggregate cereal production in the Far East is foreseen to rise, driven by an enlarged paddy output.
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Cereal production is estimated to decline from last year’s record high in South America. In Central America and the Caribbean, extended dry weather conditions have adversely affected the 2018 output, except in Mexico.

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