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Posts published in “Ghana”

World: Global Weather Hazards Summary: June 21 – 27, 2019

Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Afghanistan, Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, India, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, Mali, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tajikistan, Togo, Uganda, Uzbekistan, World, Yemen

Heavy rainfall triggers flooding in North Darfur of Sudan, while dryness persists in parts of West Africa

  1. A delayed onset to the March-May rainfall season coupled with high temperatures has caused dryness in parts of Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, and Uganda.

  2. Below-average rainfall over the past since April have led to early-season deficits and abnormal dryness in central Nigeria.

  3. Heavy rainfall during the past weeks has caused flooding in eastern Uganda and triggered flooding in northwestern Kenya.
    Heavy rainfall forecast next week is likely to maintain high flooding risk.

  4. A delayed start to monsoon rains has been marked by several consecutive weeks of below-average rainfall and 25-50% of average rainfall to date across Sierra Leone and Liberia.

  5. Heavy rainfall last week caused flash flooding in North Darfur, Sudan.
    Heavy rainfall forecast next week is likely to worsen ground conditions

World: Global Weather Hazards Summary: June 14 – 20, 2019

Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Afghanistan, Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, India, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, Mali, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tajikistan, Togo, Uganda, Uzbekistan, World, Yemen

Heavy rainfall causes flooding in eastern Uganda and northwestern Kenya

  1. A delayed onset to the March-May rainfall season coupled with high temperatures has caused dryness in parts of Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, and Uganda.

  2. Below-average rainfall over the past two months have led to early-season deficits and abnormal dryness in Nigeria.

  3. Heavy rainfall during the past weeks has caused flooding in eastern Uganda. Continued rainfall next week is likely to maintain high flooding risk.

  4. A delayed start to monsoon rains has been marked by four consecutive weeks of below-average rainfall and 25-50% of average rainfall to date across Sierra Leone and Liberia.

  5. Above-average rainfall during the past month has caused flooding in Ghana. Continued heavy rains next week maintain a high risk for flooding.

World: Global Weather Hazards Summary: June 6 – 13, 2019

Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Afghanistan, Benin, Burkina Faso, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tajikistan, Togo, Uganda, World

The Horn of Africa remains abnormally dry following poor March-May rain and a delayed onset to the season

  1. A delayed onset to the March-May rainfall season coupled with high temperatures has caused dryness in parts of Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, and Uganda.

  2. Below-average rainfall over the past two months have led to early-season deficits and abnormal dryness in Nigeria.

  3. Torrential rainfall during the past week has caused flash floods in Kampala, Uganda. Heavy rainfall is forecast to continue, maintaining high flood risk.

  4. A delayed start to monsoon rains has been marked by four consecutive weeks of below-normal rainfall and 25-50% of normal rainfall to date across Sierra Leone and Liberia.

  5. Heavy rainfall last week caused flooding in Accra, Ghana. Continued heavy rains next week maintain a high risk for flooding.

  6. Above-average sea-surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean are expected to strengthen Tropical cyclone development, which could impact parts of Somalia

World: Global Weather Hazards Summary: June 7 – 13, 2019

Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Afghanistan, Benin, Burkina Faso, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tajikistan, Togo, Uganda, World

The Horn of Africa remains abnormally dry following poor March-May rain and a delayed onset to the season

  1. A delayed onset to the March-May rainfall season coupled with high temperatures has caused dryness in parts of Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, and Uganda.

  2. Below-average rainfall over the past two months have led to early-season deficits and abnormal dryness in Nigeria.

  3. Torrential rainfall during the past week has caused flash floods in Kampala, Uganda. Heavy rainfall is forecast to continue, maintaining high flood risk.

  4. A delayed start to monsoon rains has been marked by four consecutive weeks of below-normal rainfall and 25-50% of normal rainfall to date across Sierra Leone and Liberia.

  5. Heavy rainfall last week caused flooding in Accra, Ghana. Continued heavy rains next week maintain a high risk for flooding.

  6. Above-average sea-surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean are expected to strengthen Tropical cyclone development, which could impact parts of Somalia

World: Global Weather Hazards Summary: May 31 – June 6, 2019

Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panama, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tajikistan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World

Parts of East Africa receive heavy late-season rainfall, while the western Gulf of Guinea region remains dry

  1. Continued belowaverage rainfall and high temperatures have strengthened dryness in South Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania.

  2. Below-normal rainfall since April has led to significant early-season deficits and abnormal dryness.

  3. Heavy rainfall along the coast of Kenya, southern Somalia, and Uganda has caused flooding.

  4. A delayed start to monsoon rains has been marked by four consecutive weeks of below-normal rainfall and 25-50% of normal rainfall to date.

World: Global Weather Hazards Summary: May 24 – 30, 2019

Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Afghanistan, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Namibia, Nicaragua, Nigeri...

World: Global Weather Hazards Summary: May 17 – 23, 2019

Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Afghanistan, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Namibia, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan...

World: Global Weather Hazards Summary: May 10 – 16, 2019

Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Afghanistan, Angola, Belize, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Na...

World: Global Weather Hazards Summary: April 19 – 25, 2019

Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Afghanistan, Angola, Belize, Benin, Burundi, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Liberia, Namibia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panama, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Seasonal rainfall deficits continue to strengthen across the Greater Horn of Africa

  1. Seasonal rainfall deficits since October have resulted in significant dryness across Angola, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

  2. Continued below-average rainfall and high temperatures have strengthened moisture deficits in South Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania.

World: Opening Remarks by Henrietta Fore, UNICEF Executive Director, At opening of Sanitation and Water for All Sector Ministers’ Meeting San José, Costa Rica, April 4, 2019

Source: UN Children's Fund
Country: Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Lebanon, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Togo, World

First, my thanks to the Government of Costa Rica for hosting this event — and for this country’s ongoing commitment to sanitation and water for all.

On behalf of everyone at UNICEF — especially our dedicated WASH staff in over 100 countries around the world — we appreciate this opportunity to galvanize support for this important issue.

But we also have an opportunity — and an obligation — to discuss new approaches and set clear priorities.

Because despite our great progress, new UNICEF and WHO data shows that over two billion people still lack access to safely managed water services. That 4.4 billion lack safely managed sanitation. And 1.4 billion lack basic handwashing facilities at home.

The risks are huge.

Risks to children’s health, when over 700 children under the age of five die from diarrhoea caused by poor sanitation, hygiene and water every day.

Risks to maternal health, when millions of mothers who give birth in health facilities without basic water, sanitation and hygiene are at risk of infection and disease.

Risks to education, when girls are kept home because of a lack of separate toilets or hygiene facilities in schools.

Risks to growth, because parents can’t prepare healthy meals for their children without safe water — and children’s bodies can’t retain nutrients.

And risks to entire economies. According to the World Health Organization, poor sanitation results in an estimated global GDP loss of $260 billion annually, because of health costs and productivity losses.

We must do better.

UNICEF has set an ambitious goal. By 2021, we’re aiming for 60 million more people gaining access to safe drinking water. And 250 million fewer people practicing open defecation.

To help get there, more progress is urgently needed in three areas — WASH in health care facilities, WASH in conflict, and bringing more private sector expertise, products and financing into our work.

First — WASH in health care facilities.

According to a new report UNICEF and WHO released yesterday, one in four health care facilities lacks basic water services. Putting an estimated two billion people at increased risk of infection.

Consider the birth of a baby. Every birth should be supported by a safe pair of hands, washed with soap and water, using sterile equipment, in a clean environment.

Consider also the plight of mothers in the least-developed countries. Seventeen million of them give birth in health centres with inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene every year. Putting them at risk of maternal sepsis.

The report includes eight specific actions that governments can take to improve WASH services in these facilities. From establishing national plans and targets — to improving infrastructure — to working directly with communities to create demand.

The bottom line is this. Improving WASH services is a solvable problem with a high return on investment. And it represents one more step towards improving primary health care services for all people, no matter where they live.

The second priority is WASH in conflicts.

In Lebanon last year, local mayors told me that water is the number-one issue they face. Water systems are straining to meet communities’ needs with the influx of Syrian refugees. Just one example of many where existing water systems are strained by humanitarian crises.

In fact, one in four children in the world is living in a country affected by conflict or disaster. We know that children living in fragile and conflict-affected countries are twice as likely to lack basic sanitation — and four times as likely to lack basic drinking water.

And unsafe water can be as deadly as bullets or bombs. Children under 15 are almost three times more likely to die from diseases linked to unsafe water and sanitation — like diarrhoea or cholera — than from direct violence.

We’re also seeing access to water being used as a weapon of war. Direct and deliberate attacks on water systems are all too common in conflict. When the flow of clean water stops, children are forced to rely on unsafe sources.

A new UNICEF advisory published last month calls for an immediate end to attacks on water and sanitation infrastructure and personnel.

And it calls for investments in these countries’ WASH sectors that will serve not only immediate humanitarian needs — but the long-term development of sustainable water systems.

At UNICEF, we’re taking this long-term view across all of our emergency WASH programmes.

From building dams in Somalia to improve rainwater-harvesting and water security.

To providing emergency water and sanitation to almost 300,000 Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh.

To our work in South Sudan, training local women to install water taps, build new latrines with separate facilities for men and women, and ensure that these facilities are well-lit with street lamps.

Step by step, we’re not only improving WASH services in the midst of crisis — we’re building the lasting, resilient systems these communities need to support development in the decades ahead.

My third point is about working with the private sector across our water and sanitation programming.

This includes market development to meet consumer demand — and even potential employment for local populations.

In East Africa, UNICEF has partnered with the LIXIL Corporation and governments across the region to expand the availability of affordable, state-of-the-art toilet pans that use little water.

In Somalia, we’re working with the EU, local government, and businesses and investors to develop public-private partnerships focused on pipelines and reservoirs…drilling and testing boreholes…and supporting better water-system management and maintenance.

And in Bangladesh, Sanitation Market Systems — or “SanMarkS” — is bringing together public, private and development partners to reach more households with improved sanitation. Manufacturing firms are producing low-cost latrine parts and working with local companies to market and install them. So far, 95,000 latrines have been sold, and more than 500 local people are installing and marketing them.

As we move forward, let’s also be inspired by the impressive progress that so many countries and regions have made in recent years.

The progress of South Asia — which has seen the greatest increase in the use of toilets over than last decade than at any time in history.

The progress of Ethiopia, Nepal and Cambodia — all on track to eliminating open defecation by 2030. If not earlier.

The progress of Niger, Kenya, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Togo and Mozambique. All have national roadmaps to deliver total access to sanitation, in every community.

The work in Ghana to bring together the World Bank, the government of the Netherlands and Ghana’s Apex Bank to develop a microfinance mechanism to provide loans to communities to build low-cost toilets.

And the progress we see in the co-operative efforts among governments to learn from one another. As Nigeria has been working closely with India to learn from that country’s Swachh Bharat Mission for total sanitation. An important reminder that we all have much to learn from each other’s progress.

As these successes prove, there is no excuse for failing to act.

So let’s combine our ideas and efforts. Let’s learn from one another. Let’s hold each other accountable for our commitments. And let’s make the coming decade one of action, results and progress for this critical sector. Thank you.

Media Contacts

Najwa Mekki
UNICEF New York
Tel: +1 917 209 1804
Email: nmekki@unicef.org

World: Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) Flow Monitoring Survey Results (January to December 2018) Profile of Female Migrants – 2018

Source: International Organization for Migration
Country: Albania, Algeria, Benin, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, Italy, Kenya, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Montenegro, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Spain, the Republic of North Macedonia, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, World

OVERVIEW

The flow monitoring surveys are part of the IOM’s Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) data collection activities in West and Central Africa, East and Horn of Africa, Libya and Europe (Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania and Spain), that are conducted within the framework of IOM’s research on populations on the move through Africa, the Mediterranean and Western Balkan. Data was collected between January and December 2018 in the above mentioned countries.

Migrants on the move are interviewed by IOM field teams; the surveys collect information on migrants’ profiles, including age, sex, areas of origin, levels of education and employment status before migration, key transit points on their route, cost of the journey, reasons for moving and
intentions.

The present brief highlights of some of the main characteristics of women migrants of 39 nationalities from West and Central Africa, North Africa, East and Horn of Africa, Middle East and the Gulf Cooperation Council. Further information about the questionnaire, sampling and survey implementation can be found on DTM Methodological Framework.

Libya: Libya: Activities at Disembarkation, Monthly Update – February 2019

Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Côte d'Ivoire, Eritrea, Ghana, Guinea, Libya, Mali, Morocco, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, World, Yemen

Libya continues to be a transit point for departure from North Africa towards Europe. UNHCR's interventions at disembarkation points in Libya focus on the provision of life-saving assistance and protection monitoring, to identify persons in need of international protection, as well as vulnerable individuals, such as unaccompanied and separated children, elderly, medical cases, women at risk or victims of trafficking. UNHCR through its partner International Medical Corps provides medical services and core relief items. In addition, UNHCR rehabilitated WASH facilities at six disembarkation points, in Azzawya, Tripoli (3), Tajoura (Al Hamidiyah) and Alkhums.

As of 28 February 2019, the Libyan Coast Guard rescued/intercepted a total of 778 people in different locations along the Libyan coast. Last year the LCG rescued/intercepted a total of 15,235 refugees and migrants at sea. So far in 2019, Libyan local authorities have recovered 8 bodies of people who perished while attempting to cross the Mediterranean towards Europe, while 138 people were reported missing.

Niger: UNHCR Niger: Situation Générale pour le Niger – décembre 2018

Source: Government of Niger, UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Ir...

World: Commission Implementing Decision of 11.1.2019 on the financing of humanitarian aid actions from the 2019 general budget of the European Union – ECHO/WWD/BUD/2019/01000

Source: European Commission's Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations
Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION,

Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,

Having regard to Regulation (EU, Euratom) 2018/1046 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 July 2018 on the financial rules applicable to the general budget of the Union, amending Regulations (EU) No 1296/2013, (EU) No 1301/2013, (EU) No 1303/2013, (EU)
No 1304/2013, (EU) No 1309/2013, (EU) No 1316/2013, (EU) No 223/2014, (EU) No 283/2014, and Decision No 541/2014/EU and repealing Regulation (EU, Euratom) No 966/20121 , and in particular Article 110 thereof,

Having regard to Council Regulation (EC) No 1257/96 of 20 June 1996 concerning humanitarian aid2 ('the Humanitarian Aid Regulation' or 'HAR'), and in particular Article 1,

Article 2, Article 4 and Article 15(2) and (3) thereof,

Having regard to Council Decision 2013/755/EU of 25 November 2013 on the association of the overseas countries and territories with the European Union ('the Overseas Association Decision')3 , and in particular Article 79 thereof,

Whereas:

(1) In order to ensure the implementation of the humanitarian aid actions of the Union for 2019, it is necessary to adopt an annual financing decision for 2019. Article 110 of Regulation (EU, Euratom) 2018/1046 (‘the Financial Regulation’) establishes detailed rules on financing decisions.

(2) The human and economic losses caused by natural disasters are devastating. These natural disasters, be they sudden or slow onset, that entail major loss of life, physical and psychological or social suffering or material damage, are constantly increasing, and with them so is the number of victims. Man-made humanitarian crises, resulting from wars or outbreaks of fighting (also called complex or protracted crises) account for a large proportion of, and are, the main source of humanitarian needs in the world.
There is also a need for international support for preparedness activities. Disaster preparedness aims at reducing the impact of disasters and crises on populations, allowing early warning and early action to better assist those affected.

(3) The humanitarian aid funded under this Decision should also cover essential activities and support services to humanitarian organisations as referred to in Articles 2(c) and 4 HAR, including notably the protection of humanitarian goods and personnel.

(4) The Union became party to the Food Assistance Convention on 28 November 2012; the Convention entered into force on 1 January 2013. In accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, an amount of EUR 350 000 000, to be spent as food and nutrition assistance funded under this Decision, is to be counted towards the minimum annual commitment for the year 2019 of the Union under the Food Assistance Convention.

(5) Although as a general rule grants funded by this Decision should be co-financed, by way of derogation, the Authorising Officer in accordance with Article 190(3) of the Financial Regulation, may agree to their full financing.

(6) The envisaged assistance is to comply with the conditions and procedures set out by the restrictive measures adopted pursuant to Article 215 TFEU. The needs-based and impartial nature of humanitarian aid implies that the Union may be called to finance humanitarian assistance in crises and countries covered by Union restrictive measures.
In such situations, and in keeping with the relevant principles of international law and with the principles of impartiality, neutrality and non-discrimination referred to in Article 214(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, the Union should allow and facilitate rapid and unimpeded access to humanitarian relief by civilians in need. The relevant Union restrictive measures should therefore be interpreted and implemented in such a manner as not to preclude the delivery of humanitarian assistance to the intended beneficiaries.

(7) The Commission may acknowledge and accept contributions from other donors in accordance with Article 21(2)(b) of the Financial Regulation, subject to the signing of the relevant agreement. Where such contributions are not denominated in euro, a reasonable estimate of conversion should be made.

(8) It is advisable to maintain a part of the Union budget for humanitarian aid unallocated in order to cover unforeseen operations, as part of an operational reserve.

(9) In cases where Union funding is granted to non-governmental organisations in accordance with Article 7 HAR, in order to guarantee that the beneficiaries of that funding are able to meet their commitments in the long term, the Authorising Officer responsible should verify if the non-governmental organisations concerned satisfy the requisite eligibility and selection criteria, notably as regards their legal, operational and financial capacity. The verification to be made should also seek to confirm whether the non-governmental organisations concerned are able to provide humanitarian aid in accordance with the humanitarian principles set out in the European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid4 .

(10) In cases where the Union finances humanitarian aid operations of Member States' specialised agencies in accordance with Article 9 HAR, in order to guarantee that the beneficiaries of Union grants are capable of fulfilling their commitments in the long run, the Authorising Officer responsible should verify the legal, operational and, where the entities or bodies concerned are governed by private law, financial capacity of any Member States' specialised agencies desiring to receive financial support under this Decision. The verification to be made should notably seek to confirm whether the Member States' specialised agencies concerned are able to provide humanitarian assistance or equivalent international relief outside the Union in accordance with the humanitarian principles set out in the European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid.

(11) Pursuant to Article 195(a) Financial Regulation, it is appropriate to authorise the award of grants without a call for proposals to the non-governmental organisations satisfying the eligibility and suitability criteria referred to in Article 7 HAR for the purpose of humanitarian aid.

(12) In order to ensure an effective delivery in the field of Union-funded humanitarian aid in all relevant crisis contexts while taking into account the specific mandates of international organisations, such as the United Nations and the international component of the Red Cross and Red Crescent movement (International Committee of the Red Cross and International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies), it is necessary to use indirect management for the implementation of Union-funded humanitarian aid operations.

(13) The Commission is to ensure a level of protection of the financial interests of the Union with regards to entities and persons entrusted with the implementation of Union funds by indirect management as provided for in Article 154(3) of the Financial Regulation. To this end, such entities and persons are to be subject to an assessment of their systems and procedures in accordance with Article 154(4) of the Financial Regulationand, if necessary, to appropriate supervisory measures in accordance with Article 154(5) of the Financial Regulation before a contribution agreement can be signed.

(14) It is necessary to allow for the payment of interest due for late payment on the basis of Article 116(5) Financial Regulation.

(15) It is appropriate to reserve appropriations for a trust fund in accordance with Article 234 Financial Regulation in order to strengthen the international role of the Union in external actions and development and to increase its visibility and efficiency.

(16) In order to allow for flexibility in the implementation of the financing decision, it is appropriate to define the term 'substantial change' within the meaning of Article 110(5) of the Financial Regulation.

(17) The measures provided for in this Decision are in accordance with the opinion of the Humanitarian Aid Committee established by Article 17(1) HAR.

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