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World: Saving livelihoods saves lives 2018

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Haiti, Iraq, Kenya, Lao People's Democratic Republic (the), Madagascar, Mali, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Uganda, Viet Nam, World, Yemen


In recent years, the number of people experiencing hunger – both chronic and acute – has been alarmingly and persistently high. The annual State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World has repeatedly flagged global attention to the steady rise in the number of people experiencing hunger and malnutrition (815 million people in 2016 and 821 million in 2017), focusing on the role that conflict and climate change play in deepening hunger and vulnerability. At the same time, the annual Global Report on Food Crises has drawn attention to the growing number of people facing acute hunger.

Last year, 2018, was no exception. Some 113 million people in 53 countries suffered from acute hungry, according to the Global Report. That is 113 million girls, boys, men and women, old and young, who were unable to access enough food and required humanitarian assistance.
Much of this hunger is driven by stresses – conflict, climate and economic shocks – that have disrupted livelihoods and left people unable to meet their needs. However, for the most part, the stress is the result of a constant erosion of livelihoods and food systems – as a result of climate change, conflict and political instability, environmental degradation and repeated shocks.
For the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), building resilient agriculture-based livelihoods and food systems is at the core of its efforts to fight acute hunger and avert food crises.

We know how critical humanitarian assistance is – for example in Yemen, where the scale of hunger and human suffering is staggering but which would be considerably worse without the provision of humanitarian assistance.

At the same time, it is clear that humanitarian assistance on its own is not enough to win the battle against acute hunger. That is why FAO’s humanitarian work is firmly embedded in a foundation of building resilience.

This was demonstrated in 2018, when our work extended from immediate humanitarian response to protect lives and livelihoods in some of the most complex contexts in the world, including South Sudan and Yemen, to addressing the vulnerability of pastoral populations and facilitating the development of livestock feed balances in the Horn of Africa, to supporting disaster risk reduction efforts from the Philippines to central America.

This is the true strength of FAO’s resilience programme – using timely information and analysis, a strong evidence base and building on experiences in different contexts to safeguard and build resilient agriculture-based livelihoods and food systems even in times of crisis.
Last year, FAO’s resilience programme reached 25 million people through a combination of short- and medium-term actions intended to ensure their continued access to food, reduce acute hunger and build resilience.

However, as always, this number represents just a portion of those in need. In 2018, 44 percent of the funds requested under various appeals was received, meaning that millions of farmers, herders, fishers and foresters remained without critical livelihoods assistance. In 2019, we will continue working with our partners to ensure we make the best use of limited resources and reduce the number of people that need our assistance by focusing much more on addressing the root causes of their vulnerability.

This publication offers us an opportunity to reflect on some of our achievements over the past year and identify how we can do better in the future. It is not an exhaustive list of all of FAO’s resilience work, but rather an overview of what we can achieve and how much more there is to be done.
No one agency can tackle food crises on its own. That is why FAO is actively engaging with a wide range of partners at country, regional and global levels. In 2018, this included strengthening our partnership with the other two Rome-based Agencies (the IInternational Fund for Agricultural Development [IFAD] and the World Food Programme [WFP]), as well as with other United Nations agencies, such as the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), among others. We have also invested in our relationship with regional organizations like the Central American Integration System (SICA), the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS), the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD), and the Southern African Development Committee (SADC ), particularly in the context of food security information and analysis and resilience measurement.

In 2018, with considerable support from the European Union, we moved ahead in operationalizing the Global Network Against Food Crises, which focuses on preventing and addressing crises, bringing together actors across the humanitarian-development-peace nexus, recognizing that it is only by tackling the root causes of hunger that we can avert food crises in the future.
In addition, greater investment in multi-year resilience programmes is critical. In 2018, we saw significant progress in developing and implementing such programmes, but they must become the norm and not the exception. Unless we invest at scale in building resilience – beyond a handful of projects that target 20 000 people here, 100 000 people there – we will not make significant gains in reducing acute hunger. That is the reality.

José Graziano da Silva
FAO Director-General

Saudi Arabia: Desert Locust situation update 14 May 2019

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Iran (Islamic Republic of), Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Yemen

A second generation of spring breeding is underway in Saudi Arabia and Iran

As a result of unusually good ecological conditions, a second generation of breeding is expected to cause a further increase of locusts in the spring breeding areas of Saudi Arabia and Iran.

In Saudi Arabia, spring breeding started earlier than normal this year and is also more distributed throughout the interior: along the eastern side of the Asir Mountains (March–present), in central areas between Riyadh and Hail (February–present), in the northeast between Jubail and Kuwait (March–present), and along the western edge of the Empty Quarter between Wadi Dawasir and Riyadh (April–present). A second generation of breeding is underway in central areas with egg-laying in the last week of April and hatching that may have already started. Ground and aerial teams treated 16,430 ha on 1-10 May.

In Kuwait, late instar hopper groups and bands were seen near Al Wafra and the Saudi Arabia border since the last week of April. Many of these started to fledge about a week ago and are likely to form groups of immature adults and perhaps a small swarm if not controlled. The infestations are likely to have originated from breeding that occurred in March along inaccessible border areas by swarms that moved enroute from Saudi Arabia to the southern coast of Iran. Control operations have treated 50 ha since 28 April. A few swarms may also appear from adjacent areas of Saudi Arabia.

In Jordan, an immature swarm arrived in the south near Al Jafr on 4 May that was controlled the next day. On 5 May, another immature swarm flew over the same area and reached Tafilah (south of Amman) where it was treated by air. In all, control operations treated 460 ha. The swarms are likely to have originated from breeding areas in Saudi Arabia and migrated during a brief period of southerly winds. A few more swarms could appear during periods of southerly winds, and perhaps reach southern areas of Syria or Israel.

In Yemen, locals reported several immature and mature swarms moving in the highlands between Dhamer and north of Sana'a during the past week. These swarms originated from breeding several months ago in the Empty Quarter. A ground survey is underway in the interior between Marib, Ataq and Shabwah where so far scattered adults and a few groups have been seen. Egg-laying is in progress in a few areas, and hatching is likely by the end of May with hopper groups and small bands forming in June.

In Iran, hopper and adult groups and a few hopper bands are present along parts of the coast from west of Bandar Lengeh to the Pakistan border and in the Jaz Murian Basin of the interior. A second generation of spring breeding started in late April with substantial hatching this past week that will cause more hopper groups and bands to form, which could give rise to new adult groups and swarms starting about mid-June if not controlled. Intensive control operations treated more than 18,000 ha so far in May. There is a risk that a few adult groups or small swarms could appear from Arabia at times.

In Pakistan, small-scale breeding continues in coastal areas of Baluchistan where limited control was carried out against a few hopper groups. Hoppers will start to fledge and become immature adults at the end of May and continue to about mid-June. At that time, local infestations could be supplemented by adult groups and small swarms arriving from Iran.

The longer-term outlook suggests that there is a moderate risk of a few swarms migrating after mid-June from the spring breeding areas to the summer breeding areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border and also the interior of Sudan. The scale of the migration depends on the success of current survey and control operations. Therefore, all affected-countries should maintain these operations and report on time. FAO DLIS will continue to monitor the situation closely and keep all countries informed.

World: Global Price Watch: March 2019 Prices (April 30, 2019)

Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Somalia, South Africa,...

World: FAO Early Warning Early Action report on food security and agriculture (April – June 2019)

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe


The Early Warning Early Action (EWEA) report on food security and agriculture is produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). It provides a quarterly forward-looking analysis of major disaster risks to food security and agriculture, specifically highlighting:

• potential new emergencies resulting from imminent disaster threats

• new developments in countries already affected by protracted crises which are likely to cause a further deterioration of food insecurity

This report is part of FAO’s efforts to systematically link early warnings to anticipatory actions. By providing specific early action recommendations for each country, the report aims to prompt FAO and partners to proactively mitigate and/or prevent disasters before they start to adversely impact food security.

High risk

Countries are categorized as “high risk” when there is a high likelihood of a new emergency or a significant deterioration of the current situation with potentially severe effects on agriculture and food security.

On watch

Countries categorized as “on watch” instead have a comparatively more moderate likelihood and/or potential impact, requiring close monitoring.

This report represents a summary and a prioritization of analysis provided by FAO’s corporate and joint multi-agency information and early warning systems:

• Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture (GIEWS)

• Food Chain Crisis and Emergency Prevention System (FCC-EMPRES)

• Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) and Cadre Harmonisé

In addition to these, a number of other external sources are consulted. The list of sources is available on page vii.
Countries with ongoing emergency response efforts are not included in the report, unless there are signs of potential significant deterioration. An overview of countries worldwide with humanitarian response plans or emergency plans is provided on page vi.

More details on the risk ranking methodology and the early action recommendations are provided on page ii.

World: Special Fund for Emergency and Rehabilitation Activities (SFERA) Annual Report (Jan – Dec 2018)

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Indonesia, Iraq, Kenya, Lebanon, Lesotho, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Philippines, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

The Special Fund for Emergency and Rehabilitation Activities (SFERA) enables the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to take rapid and effective action in response to food and agricultural threats and emergencies.

The Fund has three components:

(i) a working capital component to advance funds once a resource partner's commitment is secured toward the immediate procurement of inputs to protect livelihoods, restart agricultural activities or contribute to an immediate response to a crisis;

(ii) a revolving fund component to support FAO’s involvement in needs assessment and programme development, early establishment and reinforcement of emergency country team capacities, Level 3 emergency1 preparedness and response activities; and (iii) a programme component, which pools resources in support of a programme framework for large-scale emergencies or strategically complements ongoing programmes through the Agricultural Inputs Response Capacity (AIRC) window, as well as early actions triggered by corporate early warnings.

From its inception through 31 December 2018, SFERA received USD 230.4 million, of which USD 102.5 million were allocated to large-scale programmes (e.g. sudden onset disasters, the Sahel, Horn of Africa, El Niño response, highly pathogenic avian influenza, locust outbreaks, Fall army worm and protracted crises); USD 51.2 million were disbursed under the AIRC window; USD 27.8 million were used to set up or reinforce country office emergency response capacities and support needs assessments and programme formulation; USD 9.2 million were allocated to the Level 3 emergencies preparedness and response window; and USD 5.2 million were contributed to the early action window.

Since SFERA’s inception, USD 390.9 million have been advanced to fund immediate emergency projects, of which USD 36.1 million were advanced over the reporting period. Outstanding advances as at 31 December 2018 amounted to USD 7.6 million, while SFERA’s cash balance as at 31 December 2018 was USD 26.9 million.

South Sudan: GIEWS Country Brief South Sudan : 15-March-2019

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: South Sudan


Overall food security situation continues to deteriorate, with 6.45 million individuals estimated to be food insecure between February and Apr...

Ethiopia: 2019 Ethiopia Humanitarian Response Plan (January-December 2019)

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Yemen


In 2018, Ethiopia was spared significant climate-related calamities such as the droughts of previous ...

Uganda: Uganda Food Security Outlook Update, February to September 2019

Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda

Crisis (IPC Phase 3) outcomes in Karamoja expected to intensify until mid-2019


Anticipated above-avera...

World: FAO Early Warning Early Action report on food security and agriculture (January – March 2019)

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Iraq, Kenya, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Somali...

World: Crop Prospects and Food Situation, No. 4, December 2018

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Guinea, Haiti, Iraq, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Uganda, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe


AFRICA Beneficial weather conditions triggered production gains in East Africa and output rebounds in North Africa. By contrast, dry conditions curbed harvests in Southern Africa, while in West Africa, production is expected to revert to average levels. Conflicts in several countries of the region, notably in Central Africa, continue to acutely impact the agriculture sector.
ASIA Cereal harvests in 2018 declined to below-average levels in the Near East and CIS Asia, on account of rainfall deficits, while also ongoing conflicts in parts of the Near East continue to impede agricultural activities. Aggregate cereal production in the Far East is foreseen to rise, driven by an enlarged paddy output.
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Cereal production is estimated to decline from last year’s record high in South America. In Central America and the Caribbean, extended dry weather conditions have adversely affected the 2018 output, except in Mexico.

Democratic Republic of the Congo: République Démocratique du Congo: Situation actuelle de l’insécurité alimentaire aiguë – Août 2018, 16ème cycle d’analyse IPC (Créé le juin 2018 Validité d’août 2018 à juin 2019)

Source: Integrated Food Security Phase Classification
Country: Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan


Democratic Republic of the Congo: République Démocratique du Congo: Perspectives sur la sécurité alimentaire – octobre 2018 à mai 2019

Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Angola, Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan

Les conflits continuent à perturber les moyens d’existence des ménages dans les zones affectées

Messages clés

  • La saison agricole A de 2018-2019 a démarré dans les parties nord-est et centre-est du pays dans un contexte de crise sécuritaire persistante, avec le semis des principaux vivriers notamment le maïs, l’arachide et le haricot. Bien que les précipitations soient annoncées normales, l’accès aux intrants agricoles et l’insécurité constituent une contrainte à la reprise d’une saison normale notamment pour les milliers de ménages retournés.

  • Jusqu’en août 2018, environ 514,251 personnes sont nouvellement déplacées dans les provinces de Maniema, l’Ituri, le Nord-Kivu et le Sud-Kivu, selon OCHA. Ces nouveaux déplacements se sont produits en début de la campagne pourront priver l’accès à la terre à près de 100 000 ménages agricoles et impacterait sur le niveau de la production agricole dans ces zones excédentaires et partant sur la consommation alimentaire des ménages.

  • Dans la région des Kasaï, on assiste depuis début octobre 2018, à un afflux important des congolais expulsés de l’Angola. On compte près de 329 000 déjà enregistrés jusqu’au au 26 octobre 2018, qui sont disséminées dans les territoires frontaliers de Kamonia et Luiza, et exerçant ainsi une forte pression sur les faibles ressources locales. Cette situation requiert de l’assistance humanitaire d’urgence pour sauver des vies et relancer le processus de leur réinsertion sociale.

  • La situation épidémiologique de la maladie a virus Ebola dans les provinces du Nord-Kivu et de l’Ituri signale à 29 octobre, 276 victimes dont 175 cas de décès. Cette épidémie peut commencer à avoir des répercussions sur les moyens d’existence des populations des zones affectées déjà fragilisées par les conflits armés prolongés.


Situation actuelle

L’insécurité et déplacement : La République Démocratique du Congo (RDC), dans sa particularité de crise complexe et prolongée, continue à faire face à une situation humanitaire préoccupante et sans précédent. La reprise des hostilités des groupes armés sur plusieurs fronts et des violences intercommunautaires observés dans la partie est du pays, présagent d’un lendemain incertain pour ces zones en proie aux perpétuels déplacements des populations. C’est le cas de l’Ituri, du Maniema et de la région du Kasaï principalement. Cette situation a causé une limitation d’accès des ménages aux ressources et une accessibilité limite des humanitaires.

La RDC a connu le plus grand volume de nouveaux déplacements à l'échelle mondiale au cours de l'année écoulée, avec 1,4 million de personnes fuyant leurs maisons dans les seuls Kassaï. On estime actuellement à 4,49 millions le nombre total de PDI en RDC, ce qui représente la plus grande population de personnes déplacées en Afrique. Selon le HCR, près d'un million des Congolais (811 000) ont trouvé refuge dans les pays voisins. Par ailleurs, l’instabilité politique dans les pays voisins continue également de produire des nouveaux réfugiés en RDC en provenance du Sud Soudan, du Burundi et de la République Centrafricaine. Le HCR estime à plus de 541,702 réfugiés sur le sol Congolais qui partagent par moments, les mêmes ressources et moyens d’existence avec les populations autochtones.

L’expulsion des congolais d’Angola : Depuis le début du mois d’octobre 2018, la RDC assiste à l’expulsion des congolais accusés d’immigration illégale en Angola. Selon l’évaluation multisectorielle conduite dans la région des Kasaï, 329 000 personnes sont expulsées à partir du Nord de l’Angola et entrent en RDC à partir des points frontaliers de Kamako dans le Kasaï et Kalamamuji dans le Kasaï central. Avec la porosité des frontières, d’autres congolais volontaires au retour ont été reçus dans ces zones, ce peut augmenter le nombre de personnes expulsées de l’Angola. A leur arrivée, ces expulsés sont disséminés dans les villages environnants les points d’entrée.

L’épidémie de la Maladie à Virus Ebola : Dans les provinces du Nord Kivu et de l’Ituri depuis le début aout 2018 et qui peut commencer à perturber les moyens d’existence des populations en cette période difficile de soudure.

Marches et prix : Dans l’ex province du Katanga, on assiste depuis septembre dernier, à une hausse importante de prix de la farine de maïs. Pour rappel, cette région dépend à près de 70 pourcent du maïs en provenance de la Zambie. Cette situation s’explique par les mesures de restriction des importations de ce produit prises par le gouvernement Zambien en préservation de ses réserves nationales. A Lubumbashi par exemple, un sac de 25Kg de mais vendu à 14,500Fc le mois précédant est passé à 30 000 franc soit une variation de 107 pourcent en 1 mois.

Situation agricole : Sur le plan des contraintes liées à l’agriculture, la chenille légionnaire signalée dans plus de 22 provinces du pays est toujours active sans moyens de lutte efficace à ce jour. Il est de même de la situation des criquets puants dans l’extrême nord-est de la RDC, (territoire de Aru et Buta), qui continuent à décimer les cultures.

Selon les estimations de la dernière évaluation des récoltes de Juin 2018, la RDC accuse un déficit céréalier de l’ordre de 11 millions de tonnes pour une production qui ne représente que le tiers de ce déficit. Cette situation préoccupante est essentiellement causée par des multiples conflits et tensions communautaires occasionnant les déplacements des populations et auxquels s’ajoutent les différentes pestes que connait le monde végétal. La persistance d’une telle situation pourrait maintenir les populations affectées dans un cercle vicieux d’insécurité alimentaire.

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