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World: International Activity Report 2018

Source: Médecins Sans Frontières
Country: Afghanistan, Angola, Armenia, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Italy, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nauru, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Russian Federation, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

THE YEAR IN REVIEW

By Dr Marc Biot, Dr Isabelle Defourny, Marcel Langenbach, Kenneth Lavelle, Bertrand Perrochet and Teresa Sancristoval, Directors of Operations

In 2018, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) teams provided medical and humanitarian assistance to people facing extreme hardship in over 70 countries. From treating war-wounded ever closer to frontlines in Yemen, to responding to epidemic outbreaks such as cholera in Niger, or providing assistance to people fleeing violence in the Central African Republic, emergency response continued to be a core part of our work.

As 2018 drew to a close, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) was in the midst of its second Ebola outbreak of the year, and its biggest ever. MSF was part of the response, led by the Ministry of Health. Although rapid and well-resourced, with teams having access to a promising new vaccine and several new drugs with the potential to better protect and treat people, the response, and those managing it, failed to adapt to people’s priorities, and to gain the trust of the community. This lack of trust in the health services meant people delayed or avoided seeking treatment. By the end of the year, the epidemic in North Kivu and Ituri provinces had claimed more than 360 lives and in some areas was still not under control.

Seeking care in war zones

Early in the year, Syrian civilians and medical staff were caught in the violence in Idlib, in the northwest, and in East Ghouta, near the capital Damascus. In East Ghouta, the barrage was relentless in February and March, with waves of dead and injured arriving at MSF- supported hospitals and health posts. As the siege blocked incoming aid, medical staff had few medical supplies to work with. By the end of the offensive, 19 of the 20 hospitals and clinics we supported were destroyed or abandoned, leaving civilians with few options to seek medical help.

The war in Yemen, which has left the country and its healthcare system in ruins, entered its fourth year. The Saudi- and Emirati-led coalition continued to target civilian areas with airstrikes and bombings, including our new cholera treatment centre in Abs. The war is taking a heavy toll on people, who often must negotiate constantly changing frontlines to find care for their war- wounds or their general medical needs. Yemen was the country where our teams treated the highest number of war-wounded in 2018, over 16,000 people. After a major offensive was launched in Hodeidah in June, doctors in our Aden hospital treated Hodeidah residents who had been driven for six hours, the majority of them in a critical condition. Conflict intensified on several frontlines at the end of the year, leading to an influx of people with war-related injuries. We also treated more than 150 people wounded by mines planted by Houthi-led Ansar Allah troops around Mocha. Constant attacks on our staff and patients at facilities in Ad Dhale forced us to withdraw from the town in November.

Uganda: Uganda Refugees & Asylum Seekers as of 30-June-2019

Source: Government of Uganda
Country: Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian t...

World: 41 pays dans le monde, dont 31 en Afrique, ont besoin d’une aide alimentaire (FAO)

Source: UN News Service
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Congo, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Guinea, Haiti, Iraq, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Uganda, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

Les conflits prolongés et les mauvaises conditions climatiques exacerbent les besoins alimentaires, alerte l'Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture (FAO).

Selon le dernier rapport de la FAO sur les Perspectives de récoltes et la situation alimentaire publié jeudi, les conflits en cours et les sécheresses demeurent les principales causes de grave insécurité alimentaire, compromettant ainsi l'accès aux aliments et leur disponibilité pour des millions de personnes.

Le rapport indique que 41 pays, dont 31 en Afrique, ont toujours besoin d'une aide extérieure pour couvrir leurs besoins alimentaires, une situation inchangée depuis trois mois.

Les 41 pays ayant actuellement besoin d'une aide extérieure pour couvrir leurs besoins alimentaires sont l'Afghanistan, le Bangladesh, le Burkina Faso, le Burundi, le Cap Vert, le Cameroun, la République centrafricaine, le Tchad, le Congo, la Corée du Nord, la République démocratique du Congo, Djibouti, l'Erythrée, l'Eswatini, l'Ethiopie, la Guinée, Haïti, l'Iraq, le Kenya, le Lesotho, le Libéria, la Libye, Madagascar, le Malawi, le Mali, la Mauritanie, le Mozambique, le Myanmar, le Niger, le Nigéria, le Pakistan, le Sénégal, la Sierra Leone, la Somalie, le Soudan du Sud, le Soudan, la Syrie, l'Ouganda, le Venezuela, le Yémen et le Zimbabwe.

Le manque de pluies compromet la production alimentaire

En 2019, les dégâts causés par le cyclone Idai et le manque de pluies ont eu de lourdes répercussions sur la production agricole d'Afrique australe, dont celles de faire grimper les besoins d'importations en céréales. Les récoltes ont baissé pour la deuxième année consécutive au Zimbabwe et en Zambie, tandis que les pays voisins ont également enregistré des baisses de leur production en raison de conditions climatiques défavorables, comme par exemple au Mozambique avec le cyclone Idai. Au Zimbabwe, l'insécurité alimentaire devrait s'aggraver davantage en 2019, exacerbée par une forte hausse des prix des aliments de base et par la crise économique. Début 2019, près de 3 millions de personnes dans le pays étaient considérées comme étant en situation d'insécurité alimentaire.

En Afrique de l'Est, une grave sécheresse a affecté les récoltes de la première saison et conduit à une dégradation des conditions de pâturages. Les plus importantes baisses de production céréalière en 2019 sont attendues au Kenya, en Somalie et au Soudan où, d'après le rapport, les récoltes devraient être inférieures à la moyenne.

En Asie, des productions de blé et d'orge inférieures à la moyenne en 2018/19 sont attendues en Corée du Nord et des inquiétudes subsistent quant aux principales cultures saisonnières de 2019, en raison de pluies de plus en plus rares et de la faiblesse de la disponibilité en eau destinée à l'irrigation. Selon la récente mission rapide d'évaluation de la sécurité alimentaire de la FAO et du PAM de 2019, plus de 10 millions de personnes, soit 40 pour cent de la population, sont actuellement en situation d'insécurité alimentaire et ont besoin d'une aide alimentaire de manière urgente.

Les conflits chroniques ont de graves répercussions sur la sécurité alimentaire

Au Proche-Orient, malgré des conditions climatiques propices aux cultures, les conflits armés en cours en Syrie et au Yémen continuent d'entraver les activités agricoles en limitant la disponibilité des intrants et en augmentant les coûts de production. Au Yémen, lors de la période allant de décembre 2018 à janvier 2019, près de 15,9 millions de personnes, soit 53 pour cent de la population, faisaient face à une situation d'insécurité alimentaire aiguë.

De même, en Afrique, la situation désastreuse de la sécurité alimentaire dans de nombreux pays, y compris en République centrafricaine, en République démocratique du Congo et au Soudan du Sud, est le résultat de conflits persistants et de l'insécurité. Au Soudan du Sud, en particulier, selon certaines estimations, de mai à juillet 2019, le nombre de personnes en situation de grave insécurité alimentaire s'élevait à presque 7 millions, soit 60% de la population

World: Crop Prospects and Food Situation, No. 2, July 2019

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Congo, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Guinea, Haiti, Iraq, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Uganda, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

REGIONAL HIGHLIGHTS

AFRICA

Cyclone damage and rainfall deficits in 2019 caused significant production declines in Southern Africa, while in East Africa severe dryness reduced first season harvests and led to a degradation of rangeland conditions. Rainfall in West Africa is predicted to be below average, constraining production prospects.

ASIA Cereal production in 2019

in Far East Asia is forecast to rise marginally, mostly resting on a larger harvest in India. Similarly, in the Near East, despite damaging floods and persistent conflicts, production is set to increase for the region as a whole. Cereal production is also seen to increase in CIS Asia.

LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

Significant production upturn is forecast in South America in 2019, compared to last year's reduced output. In Central America and the Caribbean, irregular rains have raised concerns over the maize harvests in all countries, except Mexico, where crop prospect are favourable.

Uganda: Uganda Refugees & Asylum Seekers as of 31-May-2019

Source: Government of Uganda
Country: Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian t...

World: Jesuit Refugee Service Annual Report 2018

Source: Jesuit Refugee Service
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burundi, Central African Republic, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Iraq, Malawi, Mexico, Myanmar, Nigeria...

World: 100 Years of Fighting for Children – Annual report 2018

Source: Save the Children
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Kenya, Lebanon, Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Rep...

World: Global Humanitarian Overview 2019 Monthly Funding Update – May 2019

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Iraq, Jordan, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Myanmar, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

The Global Humanitarian Overview published on 4 December announced funding requirements of $21.9 billion for 21 Humanitarian Response Plans and the Venezuela Regional Refugee and Migrant Response Plan. By the end of May, the requirements had reached $26.42 billion. The change in requirements since last month is mainly due to the finalization of the Sudan HRP ($1.15 billion) and a $103.7 million increase for Mozambique.

As at the end of May, 142.8 million people are estimated to be in need in 57 countries, a slight increase from last month. The plans aim to provide aid to 107.4 million people.

The Somalia Drought Response Plan was issued on 20 May following the failure of the 2019 Gu’ rains (April – June), a poor 2018 Deyr season (October – December) and abnormally hot and dry conditions during the 2019 Jilaal season (January – March) which caused widespread crop failure and accelerated decline in livestock productivity. Out of 5.4 million people expected to be acutely food insecure by July, 2.2 million will be in severe acute food insecurity conditions (IPC 3 and above), a 40 per cent increase from January this year. This situation comes two years after the prolonged 2016/2017 drought which destroyed livelihoods and displaced almost one million Somalis. A massive and successful scale up in humanitarian response averted famine in 2017/2018, but once again, Somalia requires significant financial resources to prevent a return to the precipice of 2017 and enable aid agencies to immediately extend response in areas hardest hit by the drought.
The Somalia Drought Response Plan requires $710.5 million to assist 4.5 million of the most vulnerable and food insecure people.

Although it is outside the timeframe covered by this GHO update, it should be noted that on 5 June, the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) allocated $45 million to immediately scale up food and nutrition assistance, safe water provision, livelihoods protection, and other urgent humanitarian support to drought-affected people across parts of Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya who are facing acute food problems following another season of failed rains. Two-thirds of the allocation ($30 million) will go to the humanitarian response in Somalia.

Democratic Republic of the Congo: WHO AFRO Outbreaks and Other Emergencies, Week 23: 3 – 9 June 2019; Data as reported by 17:00; 9 June 2019

Source: World Health Organization
Country: Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Overview

This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 72 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:

  • Malaria in Burundi
  • Measles in Comoros Islands
  • Ebola virus disease in Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Humanitarian crisis in Central African Republic.

For each of these events, a brief description, followed by public health measures implemented and an interpretation of the situation is provided.

A table is provided at the end of the bulletin with information on all new and ongoing public health events currently being monitored in the region, as well as recent events that have largely been controlled and thus closed.

Major issues and challenges include:

  • There has been a significant reduction in the number of new Ebola virus disease cases and deaths reported in Democratic Republic of the Congo in the last weeks. While it is still too early to make any conclusions, this observed declining trend is very positive and encouraging. There have been several initiatives and efforts to step up the response to the outbreak in the past weeks.
    While still being aware of the prevailing risk factors in the communities, it is anticipated that these initiatives and intensified efforts will turn the tide on the ongoing high levels of transmissions of infections. The national authorities and all stakeholders need to sustain implementation of effective public health measures in order to bring this outbreak to an end.

  • Health authorities in Burundi have detected a potential malaria outbreak in several health districts in the country. This event comes barely one year after the occurrence of a large malaria outbreak in 2017, signifying the vulnerability of the country to malaria epidemics. The national authorities and partners need to capitalize on the early detection of this event and mount a robust response in order to bring the outbreak to a speedy end and avoid escalation of the situation.

Mozambique: WHO AFRO Outbreaks and Other Emergencies, Week 22: 27 – 2 June 2019; Data as reported by 17:00; 2 June 2019

Source: World Health Organization
Country: Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 72 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:

  • Anthrax (probable) in Lesotho
  • Vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (environmental sample) in Cameroon
  • Ebola virus disease in Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Cholera in Zambia
  • Chikungunya in Congo.

For each of these events, a brief description, followed by public health measures implemented and an interpretation of the situation is provided.

A table is provided at the end of the bulletin with information on all new and ongoing public health events currently being monitored in the region, as well as recent events that have largely been controlled and thus closed.

Major issues and challenges include:

  • The Ministry of Health in Lesotho has reported a probable outbreak of anthrax in the outskirts of Maseru, the capital city, following an epizootic confirmed by the veterinary authorities. This event has quickly raised concerns in the sub- region, including potential implications for trade. The responsible authorities in Lesotho need to act swiftly to contain this outbreak while the neighbouring countries need to improve preparedness and readiness measures, and act judiciously in response to the event, in line with provisions of the International Health Regulations (2005) and the Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

  • A circulating vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) has been isolated in an environment sample in Mada health district, Far North Province, Cameroon. The isolated virus has been linked to the ongoing cVDPV2 strain circulating in neighbouring Nigeria, which originated in Jigawa State. This event is important in view of the fact that poliovirus, targeted for global eradication, spreads easily and across large distances. To that effect, all countries, particularly those in the Lake Chad Basin, are urged to step up acute flaccid paralysis surveillance and should maintain a high immunization coverage to minimize introduction of any new virus.

Mozambique: WHO AFRO Outbreaks and Other Emergencies, Week 22: 27 May – 2 June 2019; Data as reported by 17:00; 2 June 2019

Source: World Health Organization
Country: Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 72 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:

  • Anthrax (probable) in Lesotho
  • Vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (environmental sample) in Cameroon
  • Ebola virus disease in Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Cholera in Zambia
  • Chikungunya in Congo.

For each of these events, a brief description, followed by public health measures implemented and an interpretation of the situation is provided.

A table is provided at the end of the bulletin with information on all new and ongoing public health events currently being monitored in the region, as well as recent events that have largely been controlled and thus closed.

Major issues and challenges include:

  • The Ministry of Health in Lesotho has reported a probable outbreak of anthrax in the outskirts of Maseru, the capital city, following an epizootic confirmed by the veterinary authorities. This event has quickly raised concerns in the sub- region, including potential implications for trade. The responsible authorities in Lesotho need to act swiftly to contain this outbreak while the neighbouring countries need to improve preparedness and readiness measures, and act judiciously in response to the event, in line with provisions of the International Health Regulations (2005) and the Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

  • A circulating vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) has been isolated in an environment sample in Mada health district, Far North Province, Cameroon. The isolated virus has been linked to the ongoing cVDPV2 strain circulating in neighbouring Nigeria, which originated in Jigawa State. This event is important in view of the fact that poliovirus, targeted for global eradication, spreads easily and across large distances. To that effect, all countries, particularly those in the Lake Chad Basin, are urged to step up acute flaccid paralysis surveillance and should maintain a high immunization coverage to minimize introduction of any new virus.

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