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World: Humanitarian Funding Update December 2018 – United Nations Coordinated Appeals

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Indonesia, Iraq, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

At the end of December 2018, 21 Humanitarian Response Plans (HRP) and the Syria Regional Response Plan (3RP) required US$24.93 billion to assist 97.9 million people in urgent need of humanitarian support. The requirements remained unchanged as of the end of November 2018. The plans are funded at $14.58 billion which amounts to 58.5 per cent of financial requirements for 2018. Notably, the percentage of total funding contributed through humanitarian response plans carried out by the UN with partners in 2018 is estimated at 62.9%. This is higher than at any time in the last ten years except 2017 (66.2 per cent). The plans were funded at $14.58 billion which amounted to 58.5 per cent of financial requirements for 2018.

Global requirements finished the year $230 million higher than for December 2017, and the amount of funding reported against UN-coordinated appeals at the end of 2018 was $78 million higher than at this time last year.

To make information on vulnerable people’s needs, planned response, funding and funding gaps in humanitarian crises accessible to all in one place, on 4 December, OCHA announced the launch of a new web-based portal, Humanitarian Insight.

Pooled Funds

With $945 million received from 32 Member States, one crown dependency and the general public through the UN Foundation, 2018 became the fifth consecutive year of record-high contributions received for country-based pooled funds (CBPFs). The increased contributions to CBPFs are testament to donors’ trust in this funding mechanism as a tool for principled, transparent and inclusive humanitarian assistance. Globally, a total of $756 million was allocated during the calendar year to 1,334 projects implemented by 657 partners, with two-thirds of overall CBPF allocations disbursed to NGOs. Over 24 percent were directly allocated to local and national NGOs, amounting to some $183 million. Health, emergency shelter and non-food items, water, sanitation and hygiene, food security, nutrition and protection were the largest funded sectors during 2018. In 2018, the Yemen Humanitarian Fund became the largest CBPF ever, allocating $188 million to 53 partners implementing 112 projects. The country-based funds in Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, South Sudan and Turkey each allocated over $50 million.

Between 1 January and 31 December 2018, the Emergency Relief Coordinator approved the largest amount of funding from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) in a single year with a total of $500 million. This includes $320 million from the Rapid Response Window and $180 million from the Underfunded Emergencies Window, for life-saving activities in 49 countries. In December, a total of $12.8 million was released to assist Congolese returnees and people expelled from Angola, to meet needs outstanding since the October earthquake in Haiti, and to support people affected by flooding in Nigeria.

Specific appeal information

On 17 December, the Palestinian Authority and the Humanitarian Coordinator for the occupied Palestinian territory launched the 2019 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) for $350 million to address critical humanitarian needs of 1.4 million Palestinians in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. A full 77 per cent of the requested funds target Gaza where the humanitarian crisis has been aggravated by a massive rise in Palestinian casualties due to demonstrations. Israel’s prolonged blockade, the internal Palestinian political divide and recurrent escalations of hostilities necessitate urgent humanitarian assistance for people assessed as being most in need of protection, food, health care, shelter, water and sanitation in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.

A three-month Operational Plan for Rapid Response to Internal Displacement issued on 31 December seeks $25.5 million to reach civilians displaced by inter-communal violence in Ethiopia. The plan focuses exclusively on addressing health, nutrition, education, water, sanitation and hygiene, non-food items, protection and agriculture issues related to recent violence-induced displacements around Kamashi and Assoss (Benishangul Gumuz region) and East and West Wollega (Oromia region). Nearly 250,000 people have been displaced in these regions since September 2018. The plan has been developed to bridge the period between now and the official launch of the 2019 Humanitarian and Disaster Resilience Plan (HDRP). The needs and requirements for the Benishangul Gumuz-East/West Wollega response will be included in the HDRP.

On 13 December, Assistant-Secretary-General/Deputy Emergency Relief Coordinator (ASG/DERC) Ursula Mueller delivered a statement to the Security Council on the humanitarian situation in Ukraine, where more than 3,000 civilians have been killed and up to 9,000 injured since conflict began in 2014. The crisis affects over 30 per cent of elderly people in the country, the highest proportion of people in this category in the world. The 2018 Humanitarian Response Plan, which required $187 million, was only 32 per cent funded. Without adequate funds, food, healthcare, water and sanitation, and other life-saving assistance cannot be provided.

During a 14 December briefing the USG/ERC and the Special Envoy for Yemen urged the Security Council to act swiftly to ensure full implementation of the Stockholm Agreement to demilitarize ports in the country. The agreement requires mutual withdrawal of forces from Hodeida city and its ports and a governorate-wide ceasefire to allow desperately needed humanitarian assistance to flow. The USG/ERC encouraged all parties to continue to engage seriously in implementing the multiple agreements reached in Sweden. The Government of Yemen requires billions of dollars in external support for its 2019 budget, and in parallel this year’s humanitarian response plan for Yemen requests $4 billion, about half of it for emergency food assistance.

On 11 December at a meeting in New York on the gravity of the humanitarian situation in the Central African Republic, OCHA reiterated that response to this crisis is a priority for the organization and announced that in 2019 a high-level meeting will be arranged to address the impact of underfunding on the level of humanitarian response in the Central African Republic.

In 2019 twelve countries will have multi-year HRPs. These are Afghanistan, Cameroon, CAR, Chad, DRC, Haiti, Niger, Nigeria, oPt, Somalia, Sudan and Ukraine.

World: Commission Implementing Decision of 13.12.2018 amending Commission Implementing Decision C(2017) 8863 on the financing of humanitarian aid operational priorities from the 2018 general budget of the European Union – ECHO/WWD/BUD/2018/01000

Source: European Commission's Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations
Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION,

Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,

Having regard to Council Regulation (EC) No 1257/96 of 20 June 1996 concerning humanitarian aid1 , and in particular Article 2, Article 4 and Article 15(2) and (3) thereof,

Having regard to Council Decision 2013/755/EU of 25 November 2013 on the association of the overseas countries and territories with the European Union ('Overseas Association Decision')2 , and in particular Article 79 thereof,

Having regard to Regulation (EU, Euratom) 2018/1046 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 July 2018 on the financial rules applicable to the general budget of the Union, amending Regulations (EU) No 1296/2013, (EU) No 1301/2013, (EU) No 1303/2013, (EU)
No 1304/2013, (EU) No 1309/2013, (EU) No 1316/2013, (EU) No 223/2014, (EU) No 283/2014, and Decision No 541/2014/EU and repealing Regulation (EU, Euratom) No 966/20123 , and in particular Article 110 thereof,

Whereas:

(1) Commission Decision C(2017) 88634 provides for the financing of humanitarian aid operational priorities from the 2018 general budget of the European Union for a total amount of EUR 842 200 000 from budget articles 23 02 01 and 23 02 02. In light of the evolution of the humanitarian needs during the year, this amount was raised to EUR 1 037 600 000 by Decision C(2018) 35745 of 07 June 2018 and subsequently to EUR 1 212 600 000 by Decision C(2018) 65326 of 9 October 2018 amending decision C(2017) 8863.

(2) The Commission is committed to providing a humanitarian response in those areas where humanitarian needs are greatest. Accordingly, when required by changing circumstances in the field which might affect existing humanitarian needs or generate new needs, the humanitarian response may be subject to reorientation or scaling-up in the course of implementation of actions. Union financial assistance may also have to be awarded to new actions to satisfy exacerbated or increased humanitarian needs.

(3) The global humanitarian context has been characterised by an increase in humanitarian needs in locations such as Central African Republic facing an internal conflict, Chad where the food security situation has drastically deteriorated, Cameroon facing an increasing influx of refugees, Niger facing a cholera outbreak, the Sahel (Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Nigeria) with increased needs of vulnerable populations affected by accute food or nutrition insecurity or conflict, Burundi with a regional refugee crisis, Madagascar and Haiti with a deteriorating food and nutrition security situation, Columbia facing a resurgence of violence, Palestine where the deterioration of the humanitarian situation has a high impact on the health and food security sectors, Yemen where the crisis is deteriorating, in Ukraine where the situation remains critical. In Myanmar where the Rohingya are in very serious food insecuriy situation and the humanitarian needs in most of the sectors remain uncovered. In addition the country is facing a conflict-related internal displacement crisis because of the escalation of the confilct in Kachin and Chan. In the Philippines where the humanitarian needs are mainly caused by displacement and lack of services, and destroyed or looted assets in areas of return.

(4) Non-substantial changes under this Decision are to be calculated by reference to the maximum contribution, excluding the contributions received from other donors pursuant to Article 21(2)(a)(ii) and Article 21(2)(e) of Regulation (EU, Euratom) No 2018/1046.

(5) It is therefore appropriate to amend Decision C(2017) 8863, as amended, to reflect the increase by EUR 176 174 635.17 already made on the basis of the fexibility clause in order to adapt the humanitarian response to the evolving humanitarian aid operational priorities and to distribute this additional funding to the specific objectives fixed in this Decision.

(6) This Decision complies with the conditions laid down in Article 110 of Regulation (EU, Euratom) No 2018/1046.

(7) The measures provided for in this Decision are in accordance with the opinion of the Humanitarian Aid Committee established by Article 17(1) of Council Regulation (EC)
No 1257/96,

HAS DECIDED AS FOLLOWS:

Sole Article

Decision C(2017) 8863 is amended as follows:

(1) Article 1 is amended as follows:

(a) Paragraphs (1) and (2) are replaced by the following: '1. A maximum contribution from the Union budget to the financing of humanitarian aid operational priorities is set at EUR 1 388 774 635.17, of which EUR 1 338 774 635.17 shall be financed from budget article 23 02 01 and EUR 50 000 000 shall be financed from budget article 23 02 02, of the 2018 general budget of the European Union, is approved.

The amount from budget article 23 02 01 referred to above includes a contribution amounting to EUR 36 174 635.17, received by the Union from the Department for International Development (DFID) of the United Kingdom Government, to be used in support humanitarian aid operations in the Sahel.

  1. The humanitarian actions shall be implemented in order to:

(a) Provide humanitarian and food assistance, relief and protection to vulnerable people affected by man-made crises, possibly aggravated by natural disasters, including new crises and existing crises where the scale and complexity of the humanitarian crisis is such that it seems likely to continue.
A total of EUR 1 185 300 000 from budget article 23 02 01 is allocated to this specific objective.

(b) Provide humanitarian and food assistance, relief and protection to vulnerable people affected by natural disasters that have entailed major loss of life, physical and psychological or social suffering or material damage.
A total of EUR 111 474 635.17 from budget article 23 02 01 is allocated to this specific objective.

(c) Provide humanitarian assistance for response and disaster preparedness to populations affected by disasters where a small scale response is adequate and to populations affected by epidemic outbreaks.
A total of EUR 21 000 000 from budget article 23 02 01 is allocated to this specific objective.

(d) Support strategies and complement existing strategies that enable local communities and institutions to better prepare for, mitigate and respond adequately to natural disasters by enhancing their capacities to cope and respond, thereby increasing resilience and reducing vulnerability.
A total of EUR 50 000 000 from budget article 23 02 02 is allocated to this specific objective.

(e) Improve the delivery of aid through complementary and thematic activities aiming at increasing the effectiveness, efficiency, quality, timeliness and visibility of humanitarian actions and transport.
A total of EUR 21 000 000 from budget article 23 02 01 is allocated to this specific objective.
This specific objective shall be met through achieving the following subspecific objectives:

(i) Strengthen the global humanitarian preparedness and response capacity of humanitarian partners by increasing the effectiveness and reinforcing the capacity of international humanitarian organisations and non-governmental organisations to assess, analyse, prepare and respond to humanitarian crises.
A total of EUR 3 500 000 from budget article 23 02 01 is allocated to this subspecific objective.

(ii) Improve the conditions for delivering humanitarian aid by supporting transport services to ensure that aid is accessible to beneficiaries, including by means of medical evacuation of humanitarian staff where the unavailability of such transport services could adversely affect the timely and effective provision of assistance to beneficiaries. A total of EUR 14 800 000 from budget article 23 02 01 is allocated to this sub-specific objective.

(iii) Increase awareness, understanding of and support for humanitarian issues, especially in the Union and in third countries where the Union is funding major humanitarian operations through public awareness and information campaigns. Communication actions in 2018 will also contribute, where appropriate, to the corporate communication of the Commission, in particular regarding the EU's role in the world (A stronger global actor) as well as to the corporate communication cluster "An EU that protects".

A total of EUR 2 000 000 from budget article 23 02 01 is allocated to this subspecific objective.

(iv) Provide high quality European education and professional qualifications on humanitarian action that impact on humanitarian aid policy and practice.

A total of EUR 700 000 from budget article 23 02 01 is allocated to this subspecific objective.
Annex 1 to this Decision reflects the above-mentioned allocations by specific objectives.
Annex 2 to this Decision gives an indication of the contemplated allocation by countries/regions.'

(2) Annex 1 is replaced by Annex 1 to this Decision.

(3) Annex 2 is replaced by Annex 2 to this Decision.

Done at Brussels, 13.12.2018

World: Education under attack and battered by natural disasters in 2018

Source: Theirworld
Country: Afghanistan, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Indonesia, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, World, Yemen

Billy Briggs

We look at some of the catastrophes and outrages that caused millions of children to have their education disrupted this year.

One in four of the world’s school-age children - over 500 million - live in countries affected by humanitarian crises such as conflicts, natural disasters and disease outbreaks.

About 75 million children are either already missing out on their education, receiving poor quality schooling or at risk of dropping out of school altogether. Without safe places to learn, they are at risk of child labour, child marriage, exploitation and recruitment into armed groups.

There were more than 12,700 attacks on schools between 2013 and 2017 - harming over 21,000 students and teachers in at least 70 countries.

Theirworld's report #SafeSchools: The Hidden Crisis - published earlier this month - looked at the vast scale of the challenge of getting every child into a safe school. Among the major obstacles are conflicts and disasters.

Safe Schools: The Hidden Crisis

A framework for action to deliver Safe, Non-violent, Inclusive and Effective Learning Environments

Read the report

Here we look at a turbulent year for children across the world in 2018 and how wars and natural events are keeping millions out of school.

Seven years of conflict in Syria

It started with an anti-government "Day of Rage" on March 15, 2011 - and this year saw the conflict in Syria entering its eighth year.

The seven long and bloody years of war have left a country in ruins, thousands dead or maimed and the future of millions of children in doubt.

More than eight million children have been directly affected by the conflict - six million of them inside Syria and another 2.6 million who are registered refugees in other countries.

More than 1.5 million Syrian people are now living with permanent, war-related impairments - including 86,000 whose injuries have led to amputations. Tens of thousands of them are children.

We reported in April that almost 690,000 Syrian refugee children were still out of school - more than two years after world leaders promised they would all get an education.

Another two million school-age children inside Syria - 36% of the total there - are not getting an education.

Schools continued to be targeted in 2018. In February, three days of airstrikes, rocket attacks and artillery bombardment by Syrian government forces left more than 250 civilians dead - including at least 50 children - in the besieged region outside the capital Damascus. Another 1200 were injured.

In March, 15 children were killed when an air strike in Syria's Eastern Ghouta hit a school basement they were using as a bomb shelter.

Schoolgirls kidnapped in Nigeria

We reported in February that 110 girls went missing from the Government Girls Science and Technical College in Dapchi, Yobe State. They had been kidnapped in the biggest mass abduction in Nigeria since the Chibok capture in 2014 which prompted international outrage and the global campaign #bringbackourgirls.

In March, most of the girls were released, with officials saying that 104 girls were reunited with their families after being brought back to the town.

The girls - warned by Boko Haram not to return to school - were escorted back to Dapchi by Nigerian soldiers.

The Islamist group has killed at least 20,000 people, uprooted more than 2.7 million and sparked one of the largest humanitarian crises in the world, according to aid agencies. Schooling has been greatly impacted.

Education Under Attack report

More than 21,000 students and teachers were harmed in attacks on schools and universities around the world over a five-year period, a shocking report in May revealed. They were targeted in bombings, air strikes, abductions, intimidation, sexual violence and recruitment into armed groups.

More than 40 countries suffered at least five attacks on education between 2013 and 2018 - despite such incidents being a violation of international laws.

The 300-page report Education Under Attack 2018 was unveiled by the Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack in New York.

UNICEF Deputy Executive Director Shahida Azfar said: "Places of learning have become places of fear."

The report painted a terrifying picture of life for many students and teachers in conflict zones. It identified more than 12,700 attacks during the five-year period.

The 41 countries that suffered five or more attacks was an increase on the 30 identified between 2009 and 2013.

Child soldiers in South Sudan

It emerged in February that hundreds of child soldiers had been freed - although around 19,000 were still with militias. Over 300 children - including 87 girls - were released by armed groups.

The children were released by the South Sudan National Liberation Movement and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army-In Opposition at a ceremony in Yambio, the capital of Western Equatoria State.

It was the first time child soldiers and other recruits had been freed in over a year.

The children released were due to get counselling and psychosocial support after being reunited with their families, or placed in care centres until relatives could be traced.

UNICEF and partners also planned to get them back into schools quickly to resume their education.

UN Children and Armed Conflict report

Unspeakable violence against children was revealed in a report by the United Nations which said more than 10,000 were killed or maimed in 2017.

Hundreds of new attacks on schools by armed factions around the world showed a “blatant disregard” by armed groups for both international law and children’s lives.

Disturbing new trends identified included the increasing use of children as suicide bombers and large-scale abductions of children.

Crises unfolding in Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Myanmar, South Sudan, Syria and Yemen, meant rising violence against school children.

In DRC, fighting in Kasai led to an eightfold increase of attacks - 515 in total - on schools and hospitals.

The report was by Virginia Gamba, UN Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict (CAAC), who said: “When your own house or your school can be attacked without qualms, when traditional safe havens become targets, how can boys and girls escape the brutality of war?”

Theirworld and others have been campaigning for schools to be safe places for children to learn and be with their peers.

More than 70 countries have signed up to the Safe Schools Declaration - a commitment to protect education and stop military use of schools.

Earthquake in Papua New Guinea

In March, an earthquake devastated Papua New Guinea, damaging schools and disrupting the education of tens of thousands of children.

All schools in the Southern Highlands region and some in Hela region were closed indefinitely and some were destroyed completely. Many roads used by students to get to school were unsafe.

The 7.5-magnitude earthquake struck the Pacific island nation of seven million people at about 4am on February 26 and was followed by at least 70 aftershocks.

Landslides also caused major damage. At least 75 people were killed - including four schoolchildren from South Highlands. Three of them were students at Kumin Primary School.

Safe Schools Declaration

Every child in the world has the right to an education without fear of violence or attack.

But increasing numbers of children are faced with their schools being occupied - or even bombed - by military forces around the world.

Children should not pay the cost of conflict and that’s why 82 countries have now signed up to the Safe Schools Declaration - a commitment to protect education and stop military use of schools. Bolivia became the latest to sign last month.

The world’s most powerful countries - the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council - need to join them.

Two already have - France, and now the United Kingdom - and we’re calling on China, Russia and the United States to follow their lead.

Three years of war in Yemen

Three years of fighting have wrecked the education of hundreds of thousands of children.

Almost 500,000 have dropped out of school since 2015 - taking the total number out of education to over two million, according to UNICEF.

An assessment by the United Nations children's agency titled If Not In School also revealed that:

Almost three-quarters of public school teachers have not been paid their salaries in over a year, putting the education of an additional 4.5 million children at grave risk.
More than 2500 schools are out of use, with two thirds damaged by attacks, 27% closed and 7% used for military purposes or as shelters for displaced people.

At least 2419 children have been recruited in the fighting since March 2015

Alleged war crimes this year included more than 40 children killed on a school bus in August. They were students who on their way to summer camps, according to reports, when the vehicle was attacked as it drove through a market.

“Attacks on children are absolutely unacceptable,” said UNICEF Executive Director Henrietta Fore on Twitter. “I’m horrified by the reported airstrike on innocent children, some with UNICEF backpacks. Enough is enough.”

Lake Chad crisis

It emerged in September that one of the world’s "forgotten" crises had led to more than 30,000 people killed, around 2.4 million people displaced and six million children in need of humanitarian assistance.

The impact on education in one the poorest parts of the world has been massive.

Almost 1000 schools in northeast Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon and Niger are either closed or not operating normally because of the violence and unrest.

The education of over 3.5 million children was at risk, UNICEF warned.

“Where there is insecurity, education can be both life-sustaining and life-saving,” said Manuel Fontaine, Director of Emergency Programmes at the United Nations children's agency.

Violence in Cameroon

Three teachers were murdered and several school students injured as education came under increasing attack in the English-speaking regions of Cameroon.

At least 30 schools have been the targets of violence by separatist rebels this year.

English-speaking regions in Cameroon's northwest and southwest are mired in an insurgency which began in 2016. Activists in the anglophone minority, comprising about a fifth of the population, stepped up a campaign for greater autonomy.

Dozens of people have been killed and tens of thousands have fled to neighbouring Nigeria following a violent crackdown on anti-government protests.

In November, kidnapped children were warned by gunmen not to return to school. Kidnappers freed almost 80 school children in the North-West region.

The secessionists have imposed curfews and closed schools as part of their protest against Biya's French-speaking government and its perceived marginalisation of the English-speaking minority.

Indonesia earthquakes and tsunami

In August, a powerful earthquake rocked the Indonesian island of Lombok. The disaster happened on a Sunday evening, so children were not at school at the time.

But many schools on the popular tourist island were destroyed or extensively damaged.

It was followed by another earthquake and tsunami in the Central Suwalise region in September, which displaced over 210,000 people and damaged at least 1200 schools.

Natural disasters can mean children miss out on vital education and are deprived of a safe place to be in very traumatic situations.

Save the Children and its partner in Indonesia, Yayasan Sayangi Tunas Cilik (YSTC), warned about the psychological impact of Lombok’s earthquake on children.

"There are thousands of people sleeping outside, with as many as 80,000 people either in informal shelters or simply in the open air as they are too afraid to stay indoors," said Silverius Tasman of YSTC.

"For children, our number one concern is their psychosocial wellbeing. Our team will provide psychological first aid to children, as well as train teachers to build psychosocial support activities into their curriculum.

Education under attack in Pakistan

In August a suicide bomber struck at an education centre in Afghanistan, killing at least 48 people.

One witness said as many as 100 students were inside the Mawoud centre in the capital Kabul, which specialises in preparing teenagers for university entrance exams.

The bombing was the latest in a series of attacks on education in Afghanistan. Both the Taliban and Islamic State have been behind attacks this year but the Taliban quickly denied they were involved in the bombing.

In July at least 11 people were killed and 10 injured after gunmen stormed an education department compound in Jalalabad city as teachers were delivering exam results.

In June, Jalalabad's education department was also attacked by gunmen and at least 10 people were wounded.

In the same month, more than 80 girls' schools were closed and exams cancelled after Islamic State militants warned parents to keep their children at home.

Islamic State was blamed for a horrific attack at a boys' school in Nangarhar, in which three employees were beheaded.

Tycoon in the Philippines

In September, more than one million children’s schooling was affected by a super typhoon.

Save the Children said 4300 schools - with over one million students - were closed because they were damaged or being used as shelters.

According to the charity, the Philippines education department reported at least 170 schools suffered flooding and almost 2000 classrooms were destroyed or damaged.

Typhoon Mangkhut had wind gusts of almost 190 miles per hour and left a path of destruction in the Philippines, Hong Kong, Macau and mainland China.

In the Philippines, it tore trees out of the ground and caused dozens of landslides.

“We’re really concerned about the long-term impact of the typhoon on children, particularly those who aren’t able to go back to school," said Save the Children’s Jerome Balinton from Tuguegarao City in northern Luzon.

'Hundreds of classrooms have been totally destroyed. Some had roofs ripped from their foundations while others were crushed by falling trees.”

World: Aperçu de la Situation Humanitaire Mondiale 2019 – Version Abrégée

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Aruba (The Netherlands), Bangladesh, Brazil, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Curaçao (The Netherlands), Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mexico, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

Aperçu de la situation humanitaire mondiale

PERSONNES DANS
LE BESOIN 131,7M

PERSONNES DEVANT
RECEVOIR UNE AIDE 93,6M

BESOINS FINANCIERS *
USD 21,9Md

Tendances et défis mondiaux

Malgré les progrès du développement mondial, une personne sur 70 dans le monde est en proie à
une crise et a besoin d’assistance humanitaire et de protection d’urgence.

De plus en plus de personnes sont déplacées par les conflits. Le nombre de personnes déplacées
de force est passé de 59,5 millions en 2014 à 68,5 millions en 2017.

Les catastrophes naturelles et le changement climatique ont un coût humain élevé. Les
catastrophes affectent 350 millions de personnes en moyenne chaque année et causent des
milliards de dollars de dégâts.

L’insécurité alimentaire est en augmentation. En juste deux ans, entre 2015 et 2017, le nombre
de personnes confronté à l’insécurité alimentaire de niveau critique ou pire a augmenté de 80
millions à 124 millions de personnes.

Les crises exacerbent les inégalités entre les sexes. Dans les situations de conflit, les filles ont
une probabilité 2,5 fois plus importante que les garçons d’être déscolarisées.

Les crises humanitaires affectent un plus grand nombre de personnes et durent plus longtemps.
Le nombre de personnes ciblées pour recevoir une assistance dans le cadre des Plans de réponse
humanitaire (HRP) des Nations unies a augmenté de 77 millions en 2014 à 101 millions en 2018.

Les crises humanitaires durent aujourd’hui, en moyenne, plus de neuf ans. Près de trois-quarts
des personnes ciblées pour recevoir de l’assistance en 2018 se trouvent dans des pays affectés
par une crise humanitaire depuis sept ans ou plus.

Les organisations humanitaires réussissent de plus en plus à sauver des vies et à réduire les
souffrances mais de nombreux besoins restent encore sans réponse.

Malgré une augmentation importante des financements de 10,6 milliards de dollars en 2014 à
13,9 milliards de dollars en 2017, le manque de financement des plans de réponse humanitaire
des Nations unies stagne à environ 40%.

2018 est en passe d’être une autre année record pour le financement humanitaire. Au 19
novembre, les donateurs et partenaires avaient fait état de contributions de 13,9 milliards de
dollars aux Plans de réponse humanitaire par rapport à 12,6 milliards de dollars à la même
période l’année dernière.

Les niveaux de financement ont également augmenté. Au 19 novembre, le financement des Plans
de réponse était de 56% par rapport à 52% à la même période en 2018.

Le financement humanitaire mondial a atteint un nouveau summum de 22 milliards de dollars par
rapport aux 21,5 milliards de dollars levés en 2017.

Les crises majeures et prolongées reçoivent la majorité des ressources. Entre 2014 et 2018,
quatre crises – en Somalie, au Soudan du Sud, au Soudan et en Syrie – ont comptabilisé à elles
seules 55% de tous les financements demandés et reçus.

World: Global Humanitarian Overview 2019 – Abridged version [EN/AR/ES/ZH]

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Aruba (The Netherlands), Bangladesh, Brazil, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Curaçao (The Netherlands), Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mexico, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

At a glance

PEOPLE IN NEED 131.7M
PEOPLE TO RECEIVE AID 93.6M
FUNDING REQUIRED* $21.9B

Global trends and challenges

Despite global development gains, one in every 70 people around the world is caught up in crisis and urgently needs humanitarian assistance and protection.

More people are being displaced by conflict. The number of forcibly displaced people rose from 59.5 million in 2014 to 68.5 million in 2017.

Natural disasters and climate change have a high human cost. Disasters affect 350 million people on average each year and cause billions of dollars of damage.

Food insecurity is rising. In just two years between 2015 and 2017, the number of people experiencing crisis-level food insecurity or worse increased from 80 million to 124 million people.

Crises exacerbate gender inequalities. Girls in conflict settings are 2.5 times more likely to be out of school than boys.

Humanitarian crises affect more people, for longer. The number of people targeted to receive assistance through UN-led humanitarian response plans (HRPs) increased from 77 million in 2014 to 101 million in 2018.

The average humanitarian crisis now lasts more than nine years. Nearly three quarters of people targeted to receive assistance in 2018 are in countries affected by humanitarian crisis for seven years or more.

Humanitarian organizations are increasingly successful in saving lives and reducing suffering, but many needs still remain unmet.

Despite a significant increase in funding, from $10.6 billion in 2014 to $13.9 billion in 2017, the gap in coverage for UN-led humanitarian response plans hovers at about 40 per cent. 2018 is on track to be another record year for humanitarian funding. As of 19 November, donors and partners have reported contributions of $13.9 billion to HRPs, compared with $12.6 billion at the same time last year.

Coverage rates have also increased. As of 19 November, coverage for HRPs was at 56 per cent, compared with 52 per cent at the same time in 2018.

Global humanitarian funding has reached a new high of $22 billion, surpassing the $21.5 billion raised in 2017.

Large protracted crises command the majority of resources. Between 2014 and 2018, just four crises – Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Syria – accounted for 55 per cent of all funding requested and received.

World: Humanitarian Funding Update November 2018 – United Nations Coordinated Appeals

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Indonesia, Iraq, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

Launch of the Global Humanitarian Overview 2019 and the World Humanitarian Data and Trends 2018 At the end of November 2018, 21 Humanitarian Response Plans (HRP) and the Syria Regional Response Plan (3RP) require US$ US$24.93 to assist 97.9 million people in urgent need of humanitarian support. The requirements are lower than announced at the end of October ($25.2 billion) as those for Ethiopia have now been reduced. The plans are funded at $14.29 billion; this amounts to 57.3 per cent of financial requirements for 2018.

Two million less people are considered to be in need in Mali than at the end of October, hence the reduction in the overall number of people in need in this month’s overview.

Global requirements are $1.8 billion higher than at this time in 2017, and the amount of funding received is $1.69 billion higher than it was at this time last year.

On 4 December 2018, the USG/ERC launched the Global Humanitarian Overview 2019 and World Humanitarian Data and Trends 2018 at an event in the Council Chamber, United Nations Office of Geneva. The event was attended by almost 200 representatives of Member States, intergovernmental and international organizations, UN organizations and NGOs, and by the Red Cross movement, the World Economic Forum and specialized meteorological foundations. A recording of the event can be found here: Event in Geneva to launch the GHO 2019 and WHDT 2018.

Pooled Funds In 2018, as of early December, country-based pooled funds (CBPF) received a total of US$845 million, once again setting a new record in annual contributions. Generous support from 31 Member States, from one crown dependency and from the general public through the UN Foundation, continues to demonstrate a high level of confidence in this mechanism for reaching the people most affected by humanitarian emergencies. In the past year, CBPFs have allocated a total $695 million, with $81 million awaiting approval. The Yemen Humanitarian Fund (HF) remains the largest of the funds, with $187 million already allocated towards response to urgent humanitarian needs. The HFs in Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, South Sudan and Turkey each allocated over $50 million. Globally, three-fifths of all CBPF allocations were disbursed to NGOs, including 24 per cent ($170 million) directly to national and local NGOs. Another two-fifths were allocated to UN agencies, while Red Cross/ Red Crescent organizations received 1 percent of funding ($8 million).

Between 1 January and 30 November 2018, the Emergency Relief Coordinator approved $488 million in grants from the Central Emergency

Response Fund (CERF), including $308 million from the Rapid Response Window and $180 million from the Underfunded Emergencies Window.

The grants will support life-saving activities in 48 countries. In November, a total of $11 million was released to scale-up response to cholera in Nigeria and pneumonic plague in Madagascar, as well as to expand existing UN programmes in Venezuela in support of government efforts to increase essential health and nutrition services.

World: Aid in Danger: Security Incident Data Analysis – All Regions (January 2017 – June 2018)

Source: Insecurity Insight
Country: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, China - Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region), Colombia, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic (the), Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Viet Nam, World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

World: Global Humanitarian Overview 2019

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Aruba (The Netherlands), Bangladesh, Brazil, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Curaçao (The Netherlands), Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mexico, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

GLOBAL HUMANITARIAN APPEAL AIMS TO REACH 93.6 MILLION PEOPLE WITH ASSISTANCE IN 2019

Crises affect more people, for longer, and conflict remains the main driver of humanitarian and protection needs. The Global Humanitarian Overview presents detailed, prioritized and costed plans for how the United Nations and partner organizations will respond worldwide

(Geneva, 4 December 2018) – The world is witnessing extremely high levels of humanitarian need driven primarily by armed conflicts that generate enormous suffering and displacement for years on end.

In 2019, nearly 132 million people across the world will need humanitarian assistance. The United Nations and its partner organizations aim to assist 93.6 million of the most vulnerable with food, shelter, health care, emergency education, protection and other basic assistance, according to the Global Humanitarian Overview 2019 (GHO) presented by Emergency Relief Coordinator Mark Lowcock today in Geneva.

Funding requirements for 2019 amount to US$21.9 billion. This figure does not include the financial requirements for Syria, which will be confirmed upon finalization of the 2019 Syria Humanitarian Response Plan. It is expected that total requirements, including those for Syria, will be comparable to current requirements of around $25 billion. Donors have this year provided a record $13.9 billion, as of mid-November, about 10 per cent more than at the same time in 2017, which was itself a record.

“Donors are increasingly generous, yet every year there is a gap between what is required and the funding received,” Mr. Lowcock said. “Early action and innovative financing, such as risk insurance and contingency financing, can help close this gap. Improved coordination with development programming in 2019 can also help reduce overall future requirements by tackling the root causes of humanitarian need and strengthening community resilience.”

Over recent years, the average length of Humanitarian Response Plans – the individual country plans which combined make up the annual GHO – have increased from 5.2 years in 2014 to 9.3 years in 2018. The numbers of people affected, and the financial requirements to meet their urgent needs, have also gone up year after year. Large, protracted crises have commanded the majority of resources. Between 2014 and 2018, the crises in Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Syria alone accounted for 55 per cent of all funding requested and received.

Natural disasters and climate change also have a high human cost. Disasters affect 350 million people on average each year and cause billions of dollars in damage.

The humanitarian community continues to deliver, more and better, and has reached tens of millions of people in 41 countries in 2018 through coordinated response plans. For example, every month humanitarians reach 8 million Yemenis with food assistance and 5.4 million people in Syria with supplies, medical assistance and protection. This is happening even as threats to the safety of aid workers are on the rise.

“The humanitarian system today is more effective than ever. We are better at identifying different groups’ specific needs and vulnerabilities and quicker to respond when disaster strikes.

"Response plans are now more inclusive, comprehensive, innovative and prioritized,” Mr. Lowcock said.

Affected people themselves have informed the coordinated response plans in face-to-face interviews and assessments are carried out at local community level. In addition, dedicated networks are active in at least 20 countries to protect people from sexual exploitation and abuse.

The Global Humanitarian Overview 2019 and World Humanitarian Data and Trends 2018 documents are available online www.unocha.org/global-humanitarian-overview-2019

World: Humanitarian Coordinator Information Products, November 2018

Source: Inter-Agency Standing Committee
Country: Afghanistan, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Haiti, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, World, Yemen

World: Humanitarian Funding Update October 2018 – United Nations Coordinated Appeals

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

United Nations-coordinated Appeals

FUNDING REQUIRED $25.20B

FUNDING RECEIVED $11.97B

UNMET REQUIREMENTS $13.23B

COVERAGE 47.5%

PEOPLE IN NEED 135.3 M

PEOPLE TO RECEIVE AID 97.9 M

COUNTRIES AFFECTED 41

Global Humanitarian Funding

FUNDING RECEIVED $17.98B

UN-COORDINATED APPEALS $11.97B

OTHER FUNDING $6.01B

Global Appeal Status

  • At the end of October 2018, 21 Humanitarian Response Plans (HRP) and the Syria Regional Response Plan (3RP) require US$25.20 billion to assist 97.9 million people in urgent need of humanitarian support. The plans are funded at $11.97 billion; this amounts to 47.5 per cent of financial requirements for 2018. Requirements are lower than in September 2018 due to revision of the Ethiopia Humanitarian and Disaster Resilience Plan (HDRP). For the remainder of 2018, humanitarian organizations require another $13.23 billion to meet the needs outlined in these plans.

  • Global requirements are $1.10 billion higher than at this time last year. Overall coverage and the dollar amount were only marginally higher in late October than at the same time in 2017.

  • On 8 October the Government of Ethiopia and humanitarian partners issued a Mid-Year Review of the HDRP. The revised plan reflects changes in the humanitarian context, and requires $1.49 billion for 2018, as opposed to the March 2018 requirement of $1.6 billion to reach some 7.88 million people in need of food or cash relief assistance and 8.49 million people with non-food assistance in the course of the year. Despite the general good performance of this year’s belg (spring) rains, the number of people targeted for relief food and cash support remains largely unchanged due to the significant spike in internal displacement since April 2018.

Security Council Briefings and High Level Missions

  • At a briefing to the Security Council on 23 October, Under-Secretary-General/Emergency Relief Coordinator (USG/ERC) Mark Lowcock called on all stakeholders to do everything possible to avert catastrophe in Yemen. In a follow up note on the humanitarian situation in Yemen of 30 October, the USG/ERC thanked the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, United States, Kuwait, the United Kingdom and all donors for the record amount raised for the humanitarian appeal in 2018 which had meant nearly 8 million people had received assistance across the country; more than 7 million people had received food and more than 420,000 children been treated for malnutrition; clean water, sanitation and basic hygiene support is now available to 7.4 million people and about 8 million men, women, girls and boys had benefited from health services.

  • At a Security Council briefing on the humanitarian situation in Syria on 29 October, the USG/ERC urged the Security Council and key Member States to ensure that the ceasefire holds in Syria's northwestern province of Idlib to prevent a military onslaught and overwhelming humanitarian suffering. He thanked donors for the $1.7 billion contributed so far towards the HRP for Syria, but pointed out that this HRP is currently funded at less than 50 per cent.

  • In her statement to the Security Council on 30 October, Assistant Under-Secretary-General/Deputy Emergency Relief Coordinator (ASG/DERC)
    Ursulla Mueller spoke of the steady decline in humanitarian funding for the Ukraine over the years and mentioned that the HRP for 2018 is funded at only 32 per cent. This is simply not enough to cover food, health care, water, sanitation and other life-saving assistance. ASG/DERC Mueller appealed to donors to increase their support for consolidating gains in anticipation of the fast-approaching winter.

  • During a joint mission to Chad and Nigeria (5-7 October) with UNDP Administrator Achim Steiner, as part of a series of country visits the two will make to advance humanitarian-development collaboration, the USG/ERC called on donors to fulfil pledges and announcements of over $2 million made in Berlin last month at the High Level Conference on the Lake Chad Region (3-4 September). He noted the importance of maintaining humanitarian response in the region as needs were still very high.

  • Following her visit to the Republic of the Philippines from 9 to 11 October, ASG/DERC Mueller announced that OCHA would continue advocating for sustained funding to address humanitarian needs of people displaced by the Marawi conflict while ensuring that support for the transition to longerterm and sustainable recovery is forthcoming.

Upcoming Event

  • The Global Humanitarian Overview 2019 and World Humanitarian Data and Trends will be launched in the course of joint event to take place in the Palais des Nations, Geneva, from 10:00 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. on 4 December 2018.

Pooled Funds

  • Between January and the end of October 2018, country-based pooled funds (CBPFs) have received a total of $708 million in contributions from 32 donors (including contributions through the UN Foundation). During the same period, a total of $616 million from the 18 operational funds was allocated towards 1,071 projects with 575 implementing partners. Nearly 40 per cent ($246 million) of the funds were allocated to international NGOs and some 26 per cent (approximately $160 million) to national NGOs. UN agencies received 32 per cent ($202 million) of the allocated funds and Red Cross/Red Crescent organizations received over 1 per cent (some $8 million) of all allocated funds. The largest allocations per sector went to health; food security; water, sanitation and hygiene; nutrition; emergency shelter and NFIs.

  • Between 1 January and 31 October 2018, the Emergency Relief Coordinator approved $477 million in grants from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) to support life-saving activities in 45 countries. This includes $297.7 million from the Rapid Response Window and $179.7 million from the Underfunded Emergencies (UFE) Window. A total of $31.6 million in Rapid Response grants was approved in October in response to cholera outbreaks in Zimbabwe, Niger and Nigeria; flooding in Laos; and the population influx from Venezuela to Brazil, Ecuador and Peru; as well as to support Government relief efforts following the earthquake and tsunami in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The UFE 2018 second round was completed this month, with $30.6 million approved in September and the remaining $49.4 million of the round’s $80 million released in October to assist people caught up in nine chronic emergencies in Angola, Bangladesh, Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Libya,
    Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Sudan.

Country Updates

  • Funding for humanitarian activities in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) is at an all-time low. Nearly all agencies requesting financial support through the HRP have received less funding in 2018 than in previous years. This leaves humanitarian partners ill-placed to meet emerging needs or respond to the deterioration of the humanitarian situation in Gaza, where the rise in casualties during the recent demonstrations has stretched Gaza’s overburdened health system.
    Humanitarian agencies appealed in August for $43.8 million to respond to the Gaza crisis, particularly trauma management and emergency health care, in 2018. On 22 September, the Humanitarian Coordinator for the oPt launched an $8.3 million allocation from the oPt Humanitarian Fund to implement critical HRP projects, mainly in Gaza. Stocks of medical supplies are in extremely short supply and depleted to almost half of requirements. Since late October, the Gaza power plant has been providing up to eleven hours of electricity a day. However, around 250 health,
    WASH and essential solid waste facilities continue to rely on UN-procured emergency fuel for running back-up generators. This year’s intensive operations have depleted funds and stocks and the $1 million allocated by the oPt Humanitarian Fund for fuel supplies will only last until the end of November. Further and urgent financial support is therefore required.

  • Conditions in Yemen continued to deteriorate in October, pushing the country to the brink of famine. On 23 October, the USG/ERC warned the Security Council that without urgent action, up to 14 million people – half the population – could face pre-famine conditions in the coming months.
    Assessments are currently under way, with initial results expected in mid-November. The economic crisis is raising the risk of famine. The Yemeni rial has depreciated by nearly 50 per cent over the last year. Commodity prices have soared, as Yemen imports 90 per cent of staple food and nearly all fuel and medicine.

Urgent steps are required to avert immediate catastrophe. First, a cessation of hostilities is needed; this is especially critical in populated areas.
Second, imports of food, fuel and other essentials must be able to enter Yemen without impediment. Roads must remain open so these goods can reach communities across the country. Third, the Yemeni economy must be supported, including by injecting foreign exchange, expediting credit for imports and paying salaries and pensions. Fourth, international funding must increase now to allow humanitarians to meet growing needs for assistance. Finally, all parties must engage with the UN Special Envoy to end the conflict. Yemen remains the largest humanitarian operation in the world, with more than 200 partners working through the Yemen HRP.

World: The Market Monitor – Trends and impacts of staple food prices in vulnerable countries, Issue 39 – April 2018

Source: World Food Programme
Country: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic (the), Lebanon, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Global Highlights

• In Q1-2018, the FAO cereal price index rose by 8.6 percent from Q1-2017, while the global food price index declined by 2 percent year-on-year.

• The real price for wheat was 22 percent above Q1-2017 levels: crops suffered dryness in the United States and cold weather in Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, leaving production forecasts open to a downward revision.3 World ending stocks remain at record levels.

• The real price for maize was 6 percent higher than last quarter but stable compared to Q1-2017.
Overall favourable crop conditions offset mixed production outcomes in the southern African regions, leading to firm world supplies.

• The real price of rice increased by 14 percent from Q1-2017, with a slight contraction of stocks in exporting countries and increased buying interest from importing countries.

• In Q1, the real price of crude oil increased by 5 percent from the previous quarter following an agreement on extensive production cuts in major oil-producing countries.

• The cost of the basic food basket increased severely (>10%) in Q1-2018 in five countries: Bangladesh, Central African Republic, Rwanda, the Sudan and Yemen. High increases (5–10%) were seen in Indonesia, Iraq, Myanmar, South Sudan, Turkey and Viet Nam. In the other monitored countries, the change was moderate or low (<5%).

• Price spikes, as monitored by ALPS, were detected in 19 countries, particularly in Burkina Faso, Haiti, Mali, Sudan, Sri Lanka, South Sudan and the Sudan (see the map below).4 These spikes indicate crisis levels for the two most important staples in each country, which could be maize, milk, millet, oil, rice, sorghum, sweet potatoes or wheat.

World: Emergency Management Centre for Animal Health Annual Report

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Benin, Burundi, Cambodia, China, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Japan, Kenya, Lao People's Democratic Republic (the), Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritania, Mongolia, Myanmar, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia

Animal health emergencies continue to erupt around the world at an ever-increasing pace. Increased global travel, human migration and informal trade of animals and animal products continue to intensify the risk of disease spread. Infectious diseases and other animal health threats have the potential to move rapidly within a country or around the world leading to severe socio-economic and public health consequences. For zoonoses that develop the ability for human to human transmission, an early response to an animal health emergency could prevent the next pandemic. As the demands continue to evolve for effective and efficient management of animal diseases, including emerging diseases and zoonoses, the Emergency Management Centre for Animal Health (EMC-AH) continues to evolve and keep pace with the global demands, adding value to Member States of FAO.

Building on the first eleven years of success, the Centre rebranded its platform in 2018 as EMC-AH, with the full support of the Crisis Management Centre for Animal Health Steering Committee in November 2017. The new name reflects the modernization of the platform and new way of working to better address the needs of the future. Further, the inaugural EMC-AH strategic action plan 2018 2022 released in June 2018 clearly states the vision, mission, and core functions of EMC AH for the coming five years with the aim of reducing the impact of animal health emergencies.

EMC AH’s annual report reflects EMC AH’s new way of working under its strategic action plan and addresses EMC AH performance and actions for the twelve-month period of November 2017-October 2018. During the reporting period, EMC AH contributed to strengthening resilience of livelihoods to animal health-related emergencies and zoonoses through the core pillars of its strategic action plan: preparedness, response, incident coordination, collaboration and resource mobilization. The annual report illustrates EMC-AH’s commitment to transparency and accountability.

FAO’s Member States have an ongoing need for a holistic and sustainable international platform that provides the necessary tools and interventions inclusive of animal health emergency management. EMC-AH strategic action plan requires a substantial commitment of resources to implement the full range of proposed activities, and EMC-AH must maintain key personnel essential to carry out its objectives and components of the 2016-2019 FAO Strategic Framework that addresses increased resilience of livelihoods to threats and crises (Strategic Programme five [SP5]).

As a joint platform of FAO’s Animal Health Service and Emergency Response and Resilience Team, and in close collaboration with related partners and networks, EMC-AH is appropriately positioned to provide renewed leadership, coordination and action for global animal health emergencies.

World: EU Funding for Humanitarian Food Assistance and Nutrition 2017 – Response Coordination Centre | DG ECHO Daily Map | 26/10/2018

Source: European Commission's Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations
Country: Algeria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Cambodia, Central African Republic, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Iraq, Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Myanmar, Nepal, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Serbia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

Total funding: € 656 million

World: Humanitarian Coordinator Information Products, October 2018

Source: Inter-Agency Standing Committee
Country: Afghanistan, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Haiti, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, World, Yemen

World: Devastating Impacts of Climate Change Threatening Farm Outputs, Increasing Global Hunger, Delegates Say as Second Committee Takes Up Agriculture, Food Security

Source: UN General Assembly
Country: Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya, Lao People's Democratic Republic (the), Maldives, Mali, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Philippines, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tonga, World, Yemen, Zambia

GA/EF/3499

GENERAL ASSEMBLY SECOND COMMITTEE
SEVENTY-THIRD SESSION, 10TH & 11TH MEETINGS (AM & PM)

Destructive impacts of climate change like droughts, floods and increasingly severe storms are the primary culprits behind decreased farming output and rising hunger worldwide, speakers told the Second Committee (Economic and Financial), as it took up agriculture, food security and nutrition today.

Speaking for the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), Guyana’s delegate cited the recent earthquake in Haiti as yet another reminder of the vulnerability of small island and low‑lying coastal States to extreme climate. Underlining the urgent need to build resilience to shocks through climate‑sensitive agriculture, he said water management schemes as well as drought- and flood‑resistant seeds are critical.

Maldives’ representative, speaking for the Alliance of Small Island States, similarly noted that climate change, environmental degradation and declining ocean health severely threaten food security and nutrition in small island countries. Rapid changes in temperatures and increasing levels of flooding or drought slash agricultural yields in small islands, reducing their ability to locally produce food.

Rising sea levels result in salt water encroachment, threatening coastal farmland and fresh water supply, he added. The few small islands with coastal farmland also face threats from increasingly intense and frequent natural hazards, which destroy crops and damage production as well as transport infrastructure.

Malawi’s delegate, speaking for the Group of Least Developed Countries, described climate change as one of the biggest reasons for increasing global hunger rates. Climate change has had a devastating effect on his group, with global warming of 2°C (according to the Paris Agreement) projected to further reduce crop yields and nutrition.

Almost a quarter of the populations of least developed countries suffer food insecurity, with vulnerable populations in Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan and Yemen even facing the risk of famine, he said. Adding that the vast majority of farmers in these nations are small‑scale producers, he said they are most vulnerable to environmental and price shocks.

To mitigate and adapt to the negative impacts of climate change on farming, Ethiopia’s delegate said his country is promoting climate resilient green agriculture. The idea is to mobilize local communities and undertake natural resource conservation and management activities like forestry development as well as soil and water preservation.

Speakers also stressed the need for urgent investment in agriculture, especially in Africa, where mechanization will greatly boost yields. Zambia’s delegate noted that small‑scale farmers in his country still use outdated equipment like the handheld hoe. Adding that introduction of tractors and tillers is boosting production for women farmers and their families, he stressed that many are still seeding, weeding and harvesting by hand, back‑breaking labour that causes spinal injuries and premature ageing.

In a like vein, the representative of Mozambique said his country’s ability to grow crops has remained unchanged due to traditional and rudimentary means of crop production with limited modern technology. Due to resultant shortages, it is estimated that 43 per cent of children aged 5 and under suffer from severe stunting, with huge costs for their health and education, while the rest of the population has yet to achieve ideal levels of food security and nutrition.

Reports were presented at the meeting’s outset by Madhushree Chatterjee, Chief of the Natural Resources and Interlinkages Branch of the Division for Sustainable Development Goals, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, on agriculture development, food security and nutrition (document A/73/293) and on International Year of Pulses (document A/73/287).

Also speaking today were the representatives of Egypt (for the “Group of 77” developing countries and China), Myanmar (for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations), Morocco (for the African Group), El Salvador (for the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States), Russian Federation, Costa Rica, Sudan, Algeria, Afghanistan, Nicaragua, Jamaica, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Ukraine, Cambodia, China, United Arab Emirates, Tonga, Brazil, Philippines, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Mali, Finland, Indonesia, Nepal, Burkina Faso and Saudi Arabia. Representatives of the Food and Agriculture Association of the United Nations and the Holy See also spoke.

The Committee will meet again on Monday, 15 October, to take up sustainable development.

Presentation of Reports

MADHUSHREE CHATTERJEE, Chief of the Natural Resources and Interlinkages Branch of the Division for Sustainable Development Goals, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, presented the Secretary-General’s report on agriculture development, food security and nutrition (document A/73/293) and on International Year of Pulses (document A/73/287). Emphasizing the centrality of food security in achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, she noted that world hunger is on the rise after a prolonged decline. In 2016, the world’s undernourished numbered 815 million, up from 777 million in 2015. In 2018, it is estimated that 821 million people will suffer from undernourishment. As a result of such figures, about one in five children under the age of 5 face stunting. Humanitarian assistance is critical to avert famine, but it is insufficient in addressing the causes of hunger and starvation.

Unsustainable farming and the depletion of biodiversity play a role in food insecurity trends, she continued. Any reversal in long-term progress makes the prospect of ending food insecurity by 2030 more difficult. Natural hazards affect all dimensions of food security, as does climate change, which disproportionately impacts the most vulnerable. Climate change also makes extreme weather more intense and increases in productivity harder to achieve. Water stress is also a potentially exacerbating factor in food insecurity, as it hampers economic and social development. Fisheries are affected by water stress, which also leads to land degradation.

Facing a growing lag in access to Government spending, agriculture desperately needs greater investments and financing, she said. Other factors that will bolster agriculture are an open and rules‑based trading system, South‑South and triangular cooperation and partnerships. With current trends, hunger will not be eradicated by 2030 unless urgent action takes place. All must work together to place rural development and agricultural programmes at the forefront, invest in agriculture and support institutional policy measures promoting responsible investment.

In a question and answer session that followed, the representative of Egypt asked about the challenges of using technology in developing countries to fight hunger. In response, Ms. Chatterjee offered to share the applicable report.

The representative of Algeria, noting that the northeast region of her country is referenced in the report, asked what can be done at the national level in collaboration with the United Nations to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 2. Responding, Ms. Chatterjee deferred to the agencies working on the ground in Algeria.

The representative of Paraguay asked about the main findings of report on achieving Sustainable Development Goal 2. In response, Ms. Chatterjee noted water plays a crucial role in reducing malnutrition and directed the representative to the Sustainable Development Goal knowledge platform.

Statements

MAHMOUD EL ASHMAWY (Egypt), speaking on behalf of the “Group of 77” developing countries and China, noted that hunger has been increasing worldwide for the past three years, with the absolute number of people suffering undernourishment or chronic food deprivation having risen from 804 million in 2016 to 821 million in 2017. Crisis‑level food insecurity rose from 108 million in 2016 to 124 million in 2017, with 767 million living below the extreme poverty line. Given ending poverty and hunger in all dimensions are top priorities of the Sustainable Development Goals, raising rural incomes and increasing productivity are crucial. He said the Group stresses that agriculture is the dominant sector in the gross domestic product (GDP) of many developing countries. Agricultural trade can help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals if global trade operates with an open, rules‑based trading system. Given current trends, hunger will not be eradicated by 2030.

HMWAY HMWAY KHYNE (Myanmar), speaking on behalf of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and aligning herself with the Group of 77, said the planet is under food stress, recalling that the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) estimates that world food production will need to increase by 70 per cent by 2050 to feed the global population. However, investing in agriculture is not a panacea for that challenge, she said, rather a holistic approach is needed, from addressing climate change, biodiversity loss and poverty, to developing sustainable agriculture and food systems.

Though most the Association’s Member States are major food producers, they still face food insecurity and malnutrition threats, she said, and are forging ahead under the ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint 2025 to address those challenges. Noting positive accomplishments in forestry and fishery sectors, she said ASEAN has also adopted a Declaration on Ending All Forms of Malnutrition at its 2017 summit. Turning to the threat of climate change and its effect on food insecurity, she said it had convened a special ASEAN ministerial meeting on climate action in July to galvanize regional climate action.

PERKS MASTER CLEMENCY LIGOYA (Malawi), speaking on behalf of the Group of Least Developed Countries and associating himself with the Group of 77, reminded that ending hunger is a priority of the Sustainable Development Goals, noting the worrisome trend of rising hunger over the past three years risks returning the world to the state it found itself in a decade ago. Climate change is one of the biggest culprits in driving hunger. Of 51 nations facing food insecurity, 33 are least developed countries with a combined population of 82 million. Almost a quarter of the population of the least developed countries face food insecurity, with vulnerable populations in Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan and Yemen even facing the risk of famine. Climate change has a devastating effect on least developed countries, and according to the Paris Agreement, global warming of 2°C is projected to further reduce crop yields and nutrition. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report highlights that global warming of 1.5°C may substantially reduce agricultural yield. Noting the majority of farmers — many of them women — in least developed countries are small‑scale producers, he said they are most vulnerable to environmental and price shocks. Ending hunger, he said, therefore involves concerted efforts to address the specific needs and challenges of least developed countries at the national, regional and global levels.

RUDOLPH MICHAEL TEN‑POW (Guyana), speaking on behalf of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and associating himself with the Group of 77, Alliance of Small Island States and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), said the recent earthquake in Haiti is yet another reminder of the vulnerability of small island and low‑lying coastal States in the Caribbean Community. The destructive impacts of climate change — increasingly frequent and severe storms, droughts and floods — pose an ongoing threat to the region’s agricultural infrastructure and thus to its food and nutritional security. Underlining the need to build resilience to shocks, including through the development of climate sensitive agriculture, water management schemes and drought- and flood‑resistant seeds, is critical.

Noting that agriculture today accounts for a decreasing share of the region’s GDP, he cited rising unemployment and the need to put in place technical, infrastructural and incentive frameworks to spur innovation and higher productivity in that sector. CARICOM’s Common Agricultural Policy lays the basis for transforming the sector and improving food and nutrition security in the region, he said, adding that within its single market and economy the policy seeks to establish links with other sectors — especially tourism — to increase employment. Efforts to turn the Caribbean into the first region resilient to climate change are supported by various international partners. Efforts are also under way to ensure access to fresh water supplies, reduce the consumption of processed foods and train young people in agriculture‑related social media and financial investments to help them become entrepreneurs in that sector.

FARZANA ZAHIR (Maldives), speaking on behalf of the behalf of the Alliance of Small Island States, said that food security and nutrition in small island developing countries are under severe threat from climate change, environmental degradation, declining ocean health and global economic crises. For small islands, the nexus between food security, climate action and sustainable oceans becomes more enhanced due to their vulnerability to external shocks and limited resources. Rapid changes in temperatures and increasing levels of flooding or drought can contribute to reduced agricultural yields in small islands, reducing their limited capacity for local food production. Rising sea levels result in salt water encroachment, threatening coastal farmland and fresh water supply. The few small islands with coastal farmland also face threats from increasingly intense and frequent natural hazards, which destroy crops and damage production and transport infrastructure.

As ocean health declines, so do opportunities for small island developing State communities to access safe, nutritious food, he said. Marine pollution, with increasing ocean acidification, further exacerbated by high temperatures and illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, all threaten marine resources. Many small islands are net food importing countries and highly vulnerable to the volatility of commodity prices and global supply as well as high import costs. These imported foods also have a negative impact, contributing to increasing patterns of poor nutrition, with increasing instances of non‑communicable diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, obesity and other conditions. The prevalence of obesity and non‑communicable diseases associated with poor quality diets in many small island States are among the highest in the world.

OMAR HILALE (Morocco), speaking on behalf of the African Group and associating himself with the Group of 77, stated current global efforts are not sufficient to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 2 by 2030 in many parts of the world, with special concern for sub‑Saharan Africa and parts of Asia. The African Union is taking steps to achieve the continent’s agricultural vision, aiming to end hunger by 2025. He pointed to Africa’s tremendous agricultural potential, with the world’s largest share of uncultivated fertile land, as well as abundant water resources and proximity to transportation links and regional markets. Therefore, what Africa requires is increased investment in its agricultural sector and the removal of trade restrictions. African programmes such as TerrAfrica and the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative demonstrate its determination to drive its own development.

RUBÉN ARMANDO ESCALANTE HASBÚN (El Salvador), speaking on behalf of CELAC, called on FAO to renew its cooperation programme under the framework of the Community’s Plan for Food and Nutrition Security and the Eradication of Hunger 2025, reiterating the importance of measures to strengthen school nourishment programmes in that context. The Community, he underlined, also accepts the offer by FAO to use its platform on biodiversity and food to promote the integration of conservation and sustainable agriculture. Greater investment in agriculture overall is needed to enhance food security and nutrition. He reaffirmed the Community’s commitment to promote family farming with the support of Government programmes for distribution of harvests, in coordination with the various regional actions on food security.

Welcoming initiatives for improved coherence under the Zero Hunger Challenge, he reiterated the importance of efficiency, and the inclusion of family farms, in programmes to reduce food waste. Highlighting the threat that severe meteorological events pose to agriculture and food security in the region, he underscored the importance of international support to counteract it. He recognized the positive impact of interregional trade for food security, while pledging further efforts from CELAC to overcome its challenges. He also underlined the importance of South‑South and triangular cooperation, official development assistance (ODA) and sharing of best practices in adaptation to climate change. Pledging the continued commitment of all Community members to the 2025 plan, he renewed the request for financial and technical support in that context to FAO, World Food Programme (WFP), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and regional organizations.

IAN S. NAUMKIN (Russian Federation) said if the current trend of food insecurity continues, the international community will be unable to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Measures are needed at a global level, drawing in FAO, WFP and other relevant stakeholders. Another priority is to guarantee that food is of a high quality and people make the right nutrition choices. One country alone can be affected both by famine and obesity due to unbalanced diets. It is necessary to guarantee the growth of the agricultural sector, and to mitigate the effects of extreme climate. The Russian Federation has assisted 32 States worldwide in achieving aspects of the 2030 Agenda, including to achieve food security. It has also worked together with WFP to implement projects seeking to optimize school feeding programmes.

RODRIGO ALBERTO CARAZO ZELEDÓN (Costa Rica) stressed the importance of food safety as central to agriculture, health and sustainable consumption patterns. Every year almost 600 million people worldwide fall ill and 420,000 die due to food contaminated by bacteria, parasites and chemicals, which cause 200 illnesses including cancer. His Government accents the importance of tackling this issue with integrated actions throughout the food chain from primary producer to consumer. Costa Rica will present a resolution to mark 7 June as World Food Safety Day and work for its adoption.

MURTADA HASSAN ABUOBEIDA SHARIF (Sudan), associating himself with the Group of 77, Group of Least Developed Countries and the African Group, stated the world is not moving towards eradicating hunger. Hunger is increasing after years of decrease, demanding urgent measures to secure the food supply. He noted that the number of people affected by hunger has risen from 108 to 124 million in 51 countries, due to a variety of factors including armed conflict, slow economic growth and climate change. The international community must accelerate efforts to end malnutrition and poverty. In Sudan, the agricultural sector is one of the main engines of socioeconomic development, with millions of hectares of available arable land. The country has strategic plans to increase food security and productivity and calls for sharing of technology to further develop these measures.

MOHAMMED BESSEDIK (Algeria) said the international community must award food security a key place in development and agricultural policies and strive to increase food production in all countries to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. It must improve access to food and increase agricultural activity. In Algeria, the main goal of public policies in the field of agriculture is to prioritize food security, which has now become a strategic objective for the country. This policy has mobilized about 13.7 billion to fight the root causes of hunger and malnutrition.

GHULAM SEDDIQ RASULI (Afghanistan) said world hunger is on the rise after several years of decline due to the lack of development, agriculture and global warming. Urgent actions are needed to ensure sustainable food production systems, revitalize the agricultural sector, promote rural development and empower traditionally excluded groups, especially smallholder farmers and small‑scale producers within local food systems. Nutrition is also in the spotlight as a key component of these efforts. Disasters and the effects of climate change also severely affect vulnerable populations. Strengthening the resilience of rural communities and promoting the preservation and restoration of resources and ecosystems have key importance for ensuring the well‑being of vulnerable segments of the population.

JAIME HERMIDA CASTILLO (Nicaragua), associating himself with the Group of 77 and CELAC, noting 815 million malnourished, said food security presents an urgent global challenge. Trends indicate food security disproportionately affects rural areas and women. The consequences of drought and flooding affect vulnerable populations, and the international community must adopt holistic concepts of food systems to assist them. His Government is working to protect its population from hunger, providing food packages to families affected by climate change. FAO cites Nicaragua for its progressive social policies, but the implementation of food solutions requires financing and technological transfers from developed countries to developing ones.

NICOLA ROSEMARIE GABY BARKER-MURPHY (Jamaica), associating herself with the Group of 77, CARICOM and CELAC, noted agriculture accounts for 7.3 per cent of her country’s GDP. As a small island developing State and Net Food‑Importing Developing Country, Jamaica cannot entirely feed its population. Extreme weather events due to climate change, small land holding, limited technology, reduced availability of agricultural land due to urbanization and lack of capital further stress its agricultural development. Noting Jamaica’s high food import bill leaves the country vulnerable to external economic shocks, she acknowledged the importance of enhancing the resilience of its food systems. Noting new food consumption patterns that lead to nutritionally poor diets and diseases such as diabetes, she pointed out that worldwide, some 600 million are classified as obese, a number expected to double by 2030.

MASUD BIN MOMEN (Bangladesh), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the Group of Least Developed Countries, described it as shocking that in the context of today’s interlinked global economy and advanced technology, millions of people still spend days without eating a meal. Expressing support for the Secretary‑General’s timely, action‑oriented recommendations as a basis to reverse the global hunger trend, he outlined Bangladesh’s massive increases in food production over recent decades and attributed them to bold Government policies aimed at transforming the country’s agricultural sector, promoting rural development, empowering marginalized peoples and protecting smallholder farmers and small‑scale producers. Detailing new technological developments as well as the introduction of microsavings for rural, marginalized communities — through a project known as “One House, One Farm” — he nevertheless said climate change impacts threaten to halt the country’s success. Bangladesh now spends more than 1 per cent of its GDP in addressing climate change and is researching salinity‑resistant crop varieties, among other innovations.

ALADE AKINREMI BOLAJI (Nigeria), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the African Group, is concerned that the world, particularly developing countries, is not on track to achieving Sustainable Development Goal 2. United Nations projections hold that global dietary consumption patterns mean a future population of 9 billion will require more food, even more compelling for Nigeria, which is forecast to be the world’s third most populous country by 2050. His Government is implementing strategies to end hunger and malnutrition, addressing the entire gamut of food‑related issues, with a central goal to leverage the capacities of Nigerian farmers to feed its population. The country is also boosting business start‑up initiatives, especially for youth and women. Climate‑related uncertainties like drought, floods and crop and animal disease contribute to food insecurity. Given that agriculture cannot thrive without expanded access to financial markets, he hopes initiatives like the Nigerian Incentives Risks Sharing for Agricultural Lending will attract investment.

VITALII BILAN (Ukraine), recalling the starvation his own country suffered 85 years ago, pledged to offer the help needed to address global food insecurity. His country is going through one of the most difficult stages in its history, he said, thanking FAO and WFP for the help they provided Ukraine. Despite its troubles, Ukraine remains one of the strongest players on the international food market, he said, noting that its grain harvest in 2018 was 60 million tons. He encouraged intensified coordination between all United Nations agencies and the international financial institutions and called for a more formal system of global governance in that area.

SOBOTH SOK (Cambodia) said her country has integrated agriculture development, food security and nutrition into their Rectangular Strategy, the National Strategic Development Plan and other relevant national policies. To further develop, Cambodia focuses on investment in rural infrastructure, better plant breeds and promoting high value agro‑industrial crops. Recalling the impact the National Action Plan for Zero Hunger Challenge has had on her country, she said Cambodia has also made important progress in strengthening the social protection system to be more interconnected.

TANG TIANXI (China), associating himself with the Group of 77, said eradication of hunger requires sustainable economic growth. The international community should scale up its support for developing countries, assisting them to improve their food‑producing capacities. China attaches great importance to agricultural development, enabling farmers to improve their production capacities, which has led to a steady growth in agricultural capacity. It is promoting mechanical agricultural means to modernize the sector and boost food security. The Government also attaches importance to nutrition, which has improved significantly in recent years. It plans to enhance exchanges with all international partners, assisting others to improve agricultural capacity and improve food security.

ADEL AL AMIRI (United Arab Emirates), associating himself with the Group of 77, reviewed his country’s initiatives to promote sustainable agriculture, including the appointment of a Minister of State responsible for food security. Modern technology and efficient management of natural resources aim to maximize crop production in the United Arab Emirates, he said, adding that a project named “Save the Grace” addresses the problem of food waste while delivering food to needy families. At the international level, he said the United Arab Emirates is diversifying its food sources through agriculture‑related foreign investment. Fruitful cooperation between countries can promote integrated agricultural production, bringing together various areas related to food security while contributing to sustainable development, he stated.

VILIAMI VA'INGA TŌNĒ (Tonga), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the Alliance of Small Island States, noted the urgent need to secure food systems, and said his country is working in its agricultural sector to reduce the risk of food insecurity and poverty and increase its GDP. In 2018, Tonga launched a new initiative to promote the sustainable use of local food and resources, taking an integrated approach to multisector challenges. Working to find new climate‑resilient agricultural systems, Tonga points to such projects as the Chinese Piggery, Royal Palace Introductory Thai Farming of Integrated Crops, fruit trees, livestock, fish ponds and tree planting. The country is burdened by food and agricultural diseases, but it is making a strong commitment to battle it through increased production of healthy vegetables and fruit trees and reduced imports, which are both costly and unhealthy.

ANTÓNIO GUMENDE (Mozambique), associating himself with the Group of 77, African Group and the Group of Least Developed Countries, said his Government attaches great importance to agriculture, as more than 70 per cent of its population is directly engaged and rely upon this sector for their livelihoods. Small‑scale agriculture for subsistence is dominant, which means more food is needed to meet the demands of an increased population, which grew from 13 million in 1990 to 28 million in 2017. However, the ability to grow crops has remained unchanged due to traditional and rudimentary means of crop production with limited modern technological interventions. It is estimated that 43 per cent of children ages 5 and under suffer from severe stunting, with huge costs for their health and education, while the other portion of the population has yet to achieve ideal levels of food security and nutrition. In improving this situation, the Government has been undertaking reforms aimed at transforming the agriculture sector from subsistence to a more productive and market‑oriented system. It has begun a programme of agrarian mechanization and is ensuring the use of new technologies to respond to the demand for improved seeds resistant to environmental stresses and capable of producing crops in shorter cycles.

Mr. ALAMI (Morocco), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the African Group, said hunger compels the international community to increase global food production by 70 per cent by 2050 to feed a projected population of 9.6 billion. Although his continent has made striking progress over last decade, the food crisis is real and threatens millions, with conflicts and climate change the main reasons for the rise of food insecurity. Africa cannot feed itself: over 50 per cent of its farmland is unused yet it still spends over $30 billion to import food. Morocco is committed to sharing experiences and savoir‑faire to assist in addressing the issue and has also set up a trust fund as a financial lever for South‑South and triangular cooperation to help African countries sustainably increase agricultural productivity and manage resources. The Green Morocco Plan seeks to invest in and modernize agricultural production.

BÁRBARA BOECHAT DE ALMEIDA (Brazil), associating herself with the Group of 77 and CELAC, said the Secretary‑General’s report and the lessons learned at the high‑level political forum held under the auspices of the Economic and Social Council reveal an urgent need to act on the implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 2. Progress is particularly needed in rural areas, she said, spotlighting the need for adequate development financing in the framework of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda. Greater investment in agriculture and rural areas, through international cooperation, is crucial to promoting enhanced agricultural productivity in developing countries — especially regarding family farming. Furthermore, she said, the massive concession of agricultural subsidies in rich nations — which leads to distortions in international food markets — must be curbed once it directly jeopardizes the establishment of robust agricultural sectors in the developing world.

GEBEYEHU GANGA GAYITO (Ethiopia) said his country has been implementing a comprehensive development strategy that puts increasing agricultural production and productivity at its centre. It has continued to implement a comprehensive rural development package, expanding agricultural extension services. Ethiopia has also continued to ensure broader community participation, which puts small‑holder farmers at the centre. As a result, the agricultural sector registered a 6.7 per cent growth rate in 2017. In addition, by carrying out its National Nutrition Strategy, it has been implementing global and regional commitments to address malnutrition. To mitigate and adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change on the agricultural sector, Ethiopia is promoting climate resilient green agriculture. It is mobilizing local communities and undertaking natural resource conservation and management activities like forestry development, soil and water preservation.

Mr. MUSONDA (Zambia), associating himself with the Group of 77, African Group and the Group of Least Developed Countries, stated that with an estimated 793 million people lacking access to adequate amounts of dietary energy and 156 million stunted children, the world is off‑track in ending hunger. Countries in protracted crisis and conflict risk being left permanently behind. The international community must address the underlying causes of food insecurity and malnutrition, linking short‑term emergency efforts to long‑term solutions. Small‑scale farmers in Zambia still use outdated equipment like the handheld hoe, which must be consigned to a museum. Noting the introduction of tractors and tillers is improving production of women farmers and their families, he stressed that many are still seeding, weeding and harvesting by hand, back‑breaking labour that causes spinal injuries and premature ageing. Women make up 70 per cent of small farmers, and the world needs to offer assistance to end their suffering. In 2017, 48 per cent of children under age 5 in Zambia were stunted and 13.3 per cent underweight. The Government is working to prevent micronutrient deficiency, because unless the world combats hunger, it will not have resilient societies.

LEILA CASTILLON LORA‑SANTOS (Philippines), associating herself with ASEAN and the Group of 77, said that evidence continues to signal a rise in world hunger, with climate change, instability and conflict driving the problem. Her Government is implementing policies that invest in fisheries and small farmers to improve their productivity, with a programme providing small loans from $200 to $1,000 to buy seeds and finance activities. The Philippines urges the global community with the assistance of the United Nations to help advocate and measure efforts and empower stakeholders to fight food insecurity, especially during times of conflict or crisis.

TONY OUTHAITHIP (Lao People’s Democratic Republic), associating himself with the Group of 77, ASEAN and the Group of Least Developed Countries, said the agricultural sector — which employs 70 per cent of his country’s labour force — contributes to overall economic growth and to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. He said his Government is implementing national nutrition strategies to tackle poverty and hunger and is cooperating with ASEAN on an integrated food security framework. The agricultural sector in the country faces challenges, he stressed, noting that unexploded ordinance makes much of its farmland unsafe. He said his Government is committed to eradicating poverty and hunger and stressed the importance of the support and assistance provided by development partners.

SAVITRI INDRACHAPA PANABOKKE (Sri Lanka) said one of key factors in combating global hunger and malnutrition is agriculture. It is essential that the international community enhances efforts to adopt effective agricultural policies, including promotion of sustainable agriculture, rural development and investment in the sector. Climate change has become among the greatest threats faced by Sri Lankan farmers, especially those engaged in producing rice, a staple food. Increasing temperatures and erratic rainfall patterns resulted in severe flooding in 2017, and in 2016 the country faced the worst drought in over 40 years. The resulting destruction of domestic crops had serious implications for food production. The country has introduced “climate smart” agriculture methods to minimize climate‑related impacts on agriculture, like resilient crops, rainwater harvesting, crop diversification and technology.

ARTHUR AMAYA ANDAMBI (Kenya), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the African Group, said the agricultural sector accounts for 24 per cent of his country’s GDP and that 80 per cent of its population derives its livelihood from agriculture‑related activities. Kenya prioritizes agriculture as a “fundamental tool in national development”, he stressed, adding that Government policy focuses on manufacturing, universal health coverage, affordable housing and food security and nutrition. Climate change is “ravaging” the agricultural sector and droughts continue to hamper the quest towards food security. The Government has implemented subsidies on farm inputs and enhanced efforts to provide free education and affordable health care. He stressed the relevance of technology and innovation for farming and said that eradicating hunger requires significant increases in agricultural investment.

KANISSON COULIBALY (Mali), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the African Group, said the agricultural sector is the backbone of his country’s economy, contributing over 30 per cent of GDP. Nevertheless, Mali faces significant challenges including ensuring food security for a growing population, sustainable management of resources, the effects of climate change and making full use of local products in national, subregional and global markets. Mali is also working to advance technological progress in agricultural production, building and providing tractors to farmers and providing subsidies amounting to 13.6 billion West African CFA franc, he said, noting that 15 per cent of the State budget is allocated to the agricultural sector. Grain production has risen from 6 million tons to 8 million tons annually since 2013, marking an 8 per cent increase. In the broadest terms, his Government is aiming for a zero‑hunger goal.

EMILIA VAN VEEN (Finland) said protection of plant health is one of the key aspects in ensuring food security, especially in developing and least developed countries. The international spread of pests and diseases present ever more risks to agriculture and the environment. Crop losses due to these pests can be substantial. FAO estimates that invasive pests are damaging as much as 40 per cent of all food crops globally each year. These pests cause losses in trade of agricultural products of about $220 billion per year. When pests are introduced into new ecosystems, they can have devastating effects on the environment. Invasive pests are among the main factors in biodiversity loss worldwide. A pest epidemic of enormous proportions is underway in Africa due to an introduced fruit fly and the fall armyworm, while olive tree disease is affecting some parts of Europe.

RIO BUDI RAHMANTO (Indonesia), associating himself with the Group of 77 and ASEAN, said that rural development and sustainable food production are key to ensuring food security. His country is investing heavily in farmers and rural development, while also focusing on land reform and social forestry. The culinary sector in Indonesia is a leading provider of employment in rural and urban areas. Food and nutrition is closely related to education, he stressed, adding that household access to clean water and sanitation also influenced nutrition. Climate change poses a serious risk to food security, he said, calling for coordinated efforts to bring about a world without hunger.

SUVANGA PARAJULI (Nepal), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the Group of Least Developed Countries, stressed that the relationship between hunger and poverty is cyclical. Calling for an integrated approach of raising incomes and productivity, he also emphasized the need to secure smallholders’ tenure rights over productive resources, especially for women and youth. Protection of local and indigenous food systems is equally important for food security and for preserving genetic diversity. His country’s Constitution guarantees the right to food, and is prioritizing increasing agriculture productivity, including through modernization of farming, he noted.

YEMDAOGO ERIC TIARE (Burkina Faso), associating himself with the Group of 77, Group of Least Developed Countries and the African Group, said his nation is a landlocked country with a young population. The country’s economy is largely reliant on agriculture, animal husbandry and mining. The agricultural sector is faced with many difficulties, including desertification, climate change, diseases and pests. It has drawn up a national policy for nutrition and food security, which forms part of the country’s larger strategic plan. However, as there is a severe budget issue, which is a bottleneck in how any strategies are carried out, Burkina Faso relies on the support of the international community for implementation.

MOHAMMAD ABDURRAHMAN S. ALKADI (Saudi Arabia), associating himself with the Group of 77, said the increase of population and decrease of arable land make the issue of food security among the biggest problems of the twenty‑first century. The concept of national security demands that a nation provide food that is plentiful, safe and within the means of the population to buy it. Failing to provide enough food is one of the biggest challenges facing a nation, driving malnutrition, hunger and poverty. Noting that Saudi Arabia aids the international community to find sustainable solutions, he pointed to funding of $700 million for projects providing food security, water and sanitation and 190 programmes benefiting countries including Yemen, Syria, Somalia, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Domestically, companies are required to label their products with caloric content info. Saudi Arabia is developing practical models at the national level, with 11 executive programmes in the agricultural and other sectors.

TOMASZ GRYSA, observer for the Holy See, expressed concern that — at the pace of current trends — hunger will not be eradicated by 2030. Calling for urgent action to accelerate that pace, he noted that hunger and food insecurity are often exacerbated by conflict. Despite the large humanitarian response to recent crises, he stressed: “While humanitarian assistance is critical to avert famine, it is not sufficient by itself to address the root causes of hunger and starvation.” Instead, more investment in agriculture and increased opportunities for trade are needed. For those developing countries unable to attract private investment, Governments must step in to increase productive capacity. The challenges of hunger and malnutrition flow in large part from inequitable distribution, and unfair trade and exploitative market conditions only discourage farmers from producing more or bringing their produce to market, he said, calling for a stronger emphasis on the “inviolable dignity of the human person”.

CARLA MUCAVI, Director of the Food and Agriculture Organization to the United Nations (FAO) Liaison Office, also speaking on behalf of IFAD and WFP, said the absolute number of people affected by hunger stands at 821 million, reversing 10 years of progress. Conflict, climate change and poverty are among the key drivers. Adding that worldwide, 1 in 9 persons is hungry and 1 in 8 adults obese, she said that latter issue is growing alarmingly in developed countries. Unhealthy diets are responsible for 6 of 10 factors for non‑communicable diseases, impacting not only health but public budgets and national economies. “Another symptom of broken food systems is the predominance of hunger and extreme poverty in rural areas, where food is grown” she said, noting family farmers, responsible for 80 per cent of food production, are often the most impacted. Stating the world must act now if it is to meet the 2030 Agenda, she pointed to tackling food insecurity and inequality through social protection and gender‑sensitive growth programmes, building a new rural‑urban alliance, mobilizing domestic and international investment and compiling reliable, comprehensive and disaggregated data to implement and monitor policies.

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