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World: Education in Danger Monthly News Brief, April 2019

Source: Insecurity Insight
Country: Algeria, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, China, Colombia, Cuba, Gabon, Kenya, Libya, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic,...

World: Logistics Cluster: Global Overview – April 2019

Source: World Food Programme, Logistics Cluster
Country: Bangladesh, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Indonesia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Nigeria, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

World: Déclaration commune : 22 ONG appellent à agir pour renforcer la protection des civils dans les conflits armés

Source: Concern Worldwide, InterAction, Amnesty International, War Child International, Norwegian Refugee Council, Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict, CARE, Handicap International - Humanity & Inclusion, Human Rights Watch, Action Against Hunger USA, Oxfam, International Rescue Committee, Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de I'Homme, Save the Children, World Vision, Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, Center for Civilians in Conflict, Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack, PAX
Country: Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Libya, Myanmar, Nigeria, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, World, Yemen

Cette année marque le 20eme anniversaire de l'inscription à l'ordre du jour du Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU de la protection des civils dans les conflits armés, ainsi que celui de deux résolutions importantes adoptées en 1999 : la Résolution 1 265 sur la protection des civils dans les conflits armés et la Résolution 1 270, qui prévoyait le premier mandat explicite de protection des civils dans le cadre d’une opération de maintien de la paix des Nations Unies.
Cette année marque également le 70eme anniversaire des Conventions de Genève de 1949.

Nous exhortons collectivement les membres du Conseil de sécurité, le Secrétaire général de l'ONU et l’ensemble des États membres de l'ONU à saisir cette occasion pour améliorer de manière significative la protection des civils dans les situations spécifiques à certains pays et pour promouvoir une vision ambitieuse de la protection des civils.

Au cours des vingt dernières années, des progrès importants ont été accomplis en matière de protection des civils, notamment par le biais de résolutions du Conseil de sécurité, de l'élaboration de politiques par l'ONU et des mesures prises au niveau national par les gouvernements et les acteurs de la société civile, pour donner la priorité à la protection. Ces avancées ont été favorisées par le cadre solide du droit international humanitaire (DIH) et du droit international des droits de l'homme (DIDH), élaborés pour limiter l'impact de la guerre sur les civils et sauvegarder la sécurité et la dignité des êtres humains.

Pourtant, alors que nous prenons acte de ces avancées, les civils continuent à souffrir de manière disproportionnée des conséquences dévastatrices des conflits armés. En Afghanistan, en Libye, au Myanmar, au Nigéria, en République centrafricaine, au SudSoudan, en Syrie, au Yémen et dans de trop nombreuses situations de conflit, ce sont eux qui paient le prix fort de l'incapacité des parties aux conflits armés - et des États membres qui les soutiennent - à respecter les normes et lois qui préservent l'humanité.
Les civils sont régulièrement pris pour cible, de même que les lieux où ils vivent, travaillent, étudient, pratiquent leur religion, reçoivent ou proposent des soins ou une aide humanitaire.

Des armes explosives à large impact sont utilisées en zones peuplées, avec des conséquences dramatiques, qui affectent des générations entières. Les violences sexuelles et basées sur le genre liées aux conflits se multiplient à une intensité et à un rythme choquant. Des femmes et des jeunes filles sont ainsi exposées à des risques accrus de violence sexuelle pendant les conflits. Nous assistons également à un recul inquiétant du multilatéralisme et des règles fondées sur l'ordre international, ce qui crée un environnement permissif pour les violations et les abus contre les civils dans les zones de conflit.

La communauté internationale doit collectivement inverser cette tendance inquiétante.
Nous exhortons les membres du Conseil de sécurité, le Secrétaire général de l'ONU et tous les États membres de l'ONU à prendre des mesures fermes, pour renforcer la protection des civils et pour défendre les normes et les lois essentielles, afin d’assurer la protection des civils dans les conflits.

Le prochain débat public du Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU sur la Protection des civils, qui aura lieu le 23 mai, est une opportunité cruciale pour les membres du Conseil de sécurité, le Secrétaire général de l'ONU et tous les États membres de l'ONU, de prendre des engagements concrets pour renforcer la protection des civils dans les conflits armés, pendant cette année ‘anniversaire’ et dans les prochaines années. Les questions et recommandations suivantes devraient faire l'objet d'une action collective :

Aux membres du Conseil de sécurité : Utiliser votre voix et voter pour donner la priorité à la protection des civils dans les décisions et délibérations du Conseil

  • Reconnaitre et affirmer publiquement que la protection des civils dans les conflits armés est l'une des questions fondamentales inscrites à l'ordre du jour du Conseil de sécurité.
    Réitérer votre engagement à appliquer intégralement les dispositions des résolutions du Conseil de sécurité sur la protection des civils, notamment les résolutions 1 894, 2 175, 2 286 et 2 417, ainsi que les résolutions thématiques sur les enfants et les conflits armés, les femmes, la paix et la sécurité, et la violence sexuelle dans les conflits armés. Demander systématiquement à toutes les parties aux conflits de prendre toutes les mesures nécessaires pour assurer la protection des civils. Respecter et faire respecter le Droit international humanitaire (DIH), en cessant de soutenir les parties à un conflit armé lorsqu'il existe de graves allégations, ou risques de violation du DIH et de violation, ou d'abus du DIDH (Droit international des droits de l’homme).

  • Condamner sans équivoque les violations du DIH et les violations ou abus du DIDH par toutes les parties aux conflits. Condamner systématiquement les attaques directes et indiscriminées contre les civils, les attaques délibérées des écoles, des hôpitaux et autres infrastructures civiles, et le refus arbitraire de l'accès humanitaire. Veiller à ce que les acteurs étatiques et non-étatiques qui violent délibérément leurs obligations ou ne les respectent pas, en subissent les conséquences, notamment par le biais de mécanismes pour mettre fin à l’impunité. Soutenir systématiquement la création de commissions d’enquêtes indépendantes et l’établissement des faits dans les situations de conflit armé où le nombre de victimes civiles est important. S’engager à rendre publics les rapports de ces commissions afin d'assurer une plus grande transparence dans les travaux du Conseil de sécurité, pour que les auteurs de violations graves répondent de leurs actes et pour décourager de nouvelles violations. Encourager les parties aux conflits armés à mener des enquêtes de manière transparente sur les allégations commises par leurs forces envers les populations civiles.

  • Renforcer les opérations de maintien de la paix de l'ONU et protéger les civils en fournissant un appui politique à ces missions, et en veillant à ce qu'elles disposent des ressources et des capacités nécessaires pour remplir leur mandat, notamment des conseillers à la protection des civils, des conseillers spécialisés sur les questions du genre, des conseillers dédiés à la protection des femmes, à la protection des enfants et un nombre approprié d'observateurs qualifiés des droits de l’Homme. Évaluer de manière proactive la performance des opérations de maintien de la paix de l'ONU dans l'exécution de leur mandat de protection des civils, y compris les tâches spécifiques pour la protection des enfants, des femmes et des personnes handicapées, et assurer la mise en œuvre pleine et effective des dispositions de la résolution 2 436 (2018) du Conseil de sécurité. Veiller à ce que la priorité soit accordée à la protection des civils dans un contexte de réduction des effectifs, de réadaptation ou de transition des opérations de maintien de la paix.

  • Soutenir une action rapide et décisive visant à prévenir ou à mettre fin à la perpétration de génocides, de crimes contre l'humanité ou de crimes de guerre. S’engager publiquement à ne pas voter contre un projet de résolution crédible dont le Conseil de sécurité serait saisi, concernant des mesures rapides et décisives visant à mettre un terme à ces crimes ou à les prévenir, conformément au Code de conduite du Groupe de la cohérence et de la transparence en matière de responsabilisation (A/70/621, 2015).

  • Organiser régulièrement des réunions d'information ou des réunions informelles spécifiques sur la protection des civils, dans le contexte des situations propres à certains pays inscrits à l'ordre du jour du Conseil. Inviter régulièrement des responsables de l'ONU ayant des mandats de protection spécifiques et des experts de la société civile locale, nationale et internationale, à informer le Conseil sur ces questions, y compris des intervenants pouvant fournir une analyse par genre et par âge.

Au Secrétaire général de l'ONU : respecter les engagements pris de mener un "effort mondial" pour soutenir la protection des civils. Être franc face aux puissances mondiales, pour porter la voix des civils pris au piège des conflits.

  • Donner suite à l'engagement - pris dans le rapport de 2017 sur la protection des civils dans les conflits armés - de lancer un " effort mondial " à l'appui du programme. Offrir une vision ambitieuse, pour renforcer la protection des civils dans les conflits armés aujourd'hui, et au cours des vingt prochaines années. Mobiliser les hauts responsables de l'ONU et les agences, bureaux et départements de l'ONU, derrière cet effort.

  • Exiger la fin des attaques contre les civils et condamner fermement et publiquement les violations du DIH et les violations et abus de ce droit par toutes les parties à un conflit armé.
    Faire pression sur les parties aux conflits pour qu'elles mènent des enquêtes transparentes, et présentent des rapports détaillés sur les allégations de dommages causés à des civils. Ne ménager aucun effort pour promouvoir la responsabilité des violations du droit international humanitaire et des violations et abus du droit international humanitaire par le biais des mécanismes judiciaires nationaux, régionaux et internationaux, y compris la Cour pénale internationale.

  • Dénoncer vivement les violences sexuelles liées au conflit, les violences basées sur le genre, sur le handicap et toutes les violations graves des droits des enfants dans les conflits armés. Exercer pleinement votre autorité en listant dans vos rapports toutes les parties à un conflit armé jugées responsables de violences sexuelles et de l'une des six violations graves commises contre les enfants dans les conflits armés. Utiliser votre influence, votre diplomatie pour développer des plans d’actions pour assurer que les parties aux conflits prennent des mesures significatives pour traiter les raisons de leur inscription dans ces rapports.

  • Veiller à ce que les opérations de maintien de la paix des Nations Unies mettent pleinement en œuvre leur mandat de protection des civils et adoptent une approche globale de la protection. S’attaquer fortement à toute insuffisance ou incapacité à protéger les civils, y compris par des mesures obligeant les états à rendre des compte. Prendre des mesures pour veiller à ce que les opérations de maintien de la paix réduisent au minimum les dommages causés aux civils, notamment en appuyant les forces de sécurité nationales, ou les opérations militaires parallèles, et veiller à la mise en œuvre intégrale de la politique de diligence voulue en matière de droits de l'Homme des Nations Unies, sur le soutien des Nations Unies aux forces de sécurité non-onusiennes. Veiller à ce que les opérations de maintien de la paix de l'ONU fassent participer de manière sûre et significative les communautés locales sur leurs besoins de protection, en veillant à ce que tous les groupes, y compris les femmes, les jeunes, les enfants et les personnes vivant avec un handicap, participent de manière proactive, afin que leurs perspectives et capacités déterminent les efforts des missions pour répondre aux menaces à l’encontre de leur protection.

  • Établir une approche systématique pour enregistrer les dommages causés aux civils et veiller à ce que les opérations de maintien de la paix des Nations Unies, les missions politiques spéciales et les autres agences ou bureaux compétents des Nations Unies sur le terrain, aient la capacité et les directives nécessaires pour surveiller de manière proactive, analyser les tendances et rendre publiquement compte des dommages aux civils.
    Communiquer régulièrement au Conseil de sécurité des informations et des analyses classées par genre, handicap et âge, sur les tendances en matière de protection des civils afin de mieux éclairer ses délibérations et ses décisions.

A tous les Etats-membres de l'ONU : donner la priorité à la protection des civils au niveau national, partager et systématiser les bonnes pratiques, et assurer le respect du DIH et du DIDH.

  • Réitérer votre engagement total à respecter les obligations découlant des Conventions de Genève de 1949 et de leurs Protocoles additionnels, ainsi que de toutes les conventions relatives au droit international des droits de l’homme. Adhérer à tous les traités, conventions et protocoles additionnels, y compris les Protocole I et II aux Conventions de Genève et le Protocole facultatif à la convention des droits de l’enfant, concernant l'implication d'enfants dans les conflits armés, et les mettre en œuvre. S’engager publiquement à accorder la priorité à la protection des civils au niveau national, notamment par l'adoption et la mise en œuvre d'un cadre politique national sur la protection des civils, et par l'établissement de politiques et de mécanismes spécifiques pour atténuer les dommages causés aux civils, et répondre à ces derniers. S’engager en outre à recueillir systématiquement des informations et des données sur les dommages causés aux civils, et accepter et encourager les informations issues de la société civile, concernant les menaces contre les civils et les incidents de dommages causés aux civils.
    Assurer la promotion et la transparence et la fin de l’impunité en cas de violation du DIH et du DIDH.

  • Adopter et mettre en œuvre les principales politiques et déclarations relatives à la protection des civils, notamment : élaborer, mettre en œuvre et financer des plans d'action nationaux pour les femmes, la paix et la sécurité ; approuver et appliquer les Principes de Paris et la Déclaration sur la sécurité dans les écoles.

  • Soutenir les efforts en vue de l'adoption d'une déclaration politique internationale contre l’utilisation des armes explosives en zones peuplées, pendant l'année du 20e anniversaire.
    Une telle déclaration devra engager les États à éviter l'emploi d'armes explosives à large rayon d’impact en zones peuplées. Compte tenu de leur impact humanitaire dévastateur sur les individus et les communautés - morts, blessés et dommages causés aux infrastructures civiles vitales – les effets indiscriminés de ces armes ne sont plus à prouver. S’engager à élaborer des normes et des restrictions nationales strictes concernant l’utilisation d'armes explosives à large rayon d’impact en zones peuplées. Examiner et renforcer les politiques et pratiques militaires, en vue d'éviter l'emploi d'armes explosives dans les zones peuplées.
    Recueillir et mettre à disposition les données adéquates, y compris par le biais des processus de suivi des dommages causés aux civils et d'enregistrement des victimes civiles. Contribuer à aider les victimes et leurs communautés à faire face aux dommages civils causés par les effets des armes explosives.

  • Reconnaitre publiquement que la protection des civils doit être un objectif prioritaire dans tout partenariat pour la sécurité et partager les bonnes pratiques qui permettraient d'améliorer la protection des civils par les forces de sécurité partenaires. Définir clairement les conditions relatives à la protection des civils qui entraîneraient le déclassement ou la résiliation des partenariats pour la sécurité. Respecter strictement le Traité sur le commerce des armes, qui peut aider à protéger les civils, même dans les situations les plus difficiles, en plaçant le DIH et le DIDH au centre des décisions concernant le transfert d'armes.

  • Réaffirmer les principes humanitaires fondamentaux, y compris celui de l'impartialité, qui ne fait aucune distinction en matière de protection des droits des personnes en danger, sur la base de la nationalité, du genre, des croyances religieuses, de la classe socio-professionnelle ou des opinions politiques, et affirme que l'action humanitaire doit être indépendante et libre de toute influence politique. S’engager de nouveau à faciliter l'accès rapide et sûr à l'aide humanitaire et à la protection des civils touchés, sans aucun obstacle créé par des tactiques militaires disproportionnées, ou par des obstacles bureaucratiques déraisonnables. Inclure des exemptions humanitaires dans toute législation et politique antiterroriste afin de prévenir les conséquences involontaires ou les restrictions à l'aide humanitaire. Condamner explicitement les cas d'assassinats et d'attaques contre le personnel humanitaire et médical, et veiller à ce que les responsables de ces attaques répondent de leurs actes.

  • Reconnaitre publiquement l'importance pour les opérations de maintien de la paix des Nations Unies de s'acquitter pleinement de leur mandat de protection des civils. Prendre des mesures pour mettre en œuvre les dispositions de la Déclaration d’engagements communs sur les opérations de maintien de la paix de l'ONU, en particulier les engagements sur le renforcement de la protection des civils, l'amélioration de l’efficacité et de la responsabilisation, et le maintien de la paix, afin de s'assurer que l'élan de la réforme du maintien de la paix soit maintenu. Approuver et appliquer les Principes de Kigali sur la protection des civils et les Principes de Vancouver sur le maintien de la paix et la prévention du recrutement et de l'utilisation des enfants soldats.

ONG soutenant cet appel :

Action contre la Faim
Amnesty International
Article 36
CARE
Center for Civilians in Conflict
Child Fund Alliance
Concern Worldwide US
FIDH
Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect
Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack
Human Rights Watch
Handicap International (HI – Humanity & Inclusion)
InterAction
The International Network on Explosive Weapons (INEW)
International Rescue Committee
Norwegian Refugee Council
Oxfam
PAX
Save the Children
War Child
Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict
World Vision International

Afghanistan: R2P Monitor, Issue 45 (15 May 2019)

Source: Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Libya, Mali, Myanmar, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Yemen

The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) is a global norm, unanimously adopted by heads of state and government at the 2005 UN World Summit, aimed at preventing and halting Genocide, War Crimes, Ethnic Cleansing and Crimes Against Humanity. R2P stipulates that:

"Every State has the Responsibility to Protect its populations from the four mass atrocity crimes (Pillar I). "

"The wider international community has the responsibility to encourage and assist individual States in meeting that responsibility (Pillar II)."

"If a State is manifestly failing to protect its populations, the international community must be prepared to take appropriate collective action, in a timely and decisive manner and in accordance with the UN Charter (Pillar III)."

World: Aperçu du financement humanitaire, Avril 2019

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Iraq, Jordan, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Myanmar, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

L’Aperçu de la situation humanitaire mondiale (GHO), publié le 4 décembre 2018 annonçait des besoins en financement de 21,9 milliards de dollars pour 21 Plans de réponse humanitaire (HRP) et le Plan régional de réponse pour les réfugiés et les migrants du Venezuela (RMRP). À la fin du mois de mars, en raison essentiellement de la publication du HRP de la Syrie nécessitant 3,32 milliards de dollars, les besoins avaient atteint 25,11 milliards de dollars. Ce mois-ci, l’augmentation des besoins pour l’Appel éclair révisé du Zimbabwe (suite au Cyclone Idai), passant de 233,8 millions à 293,9 millions de dollars, porte le total des besoins au 30 avril, à 25,17 milliards de dollars.
Les besoins financiers pour les Plans de réponse humanitaire du Burundi et de l’Irak, tous deux récemment publiés, correspondent à ce qui avait été anticipé dans l'aperçu de la situation humanitaire. À la fin du mois d’avril, le nombre de personnes dans le besoin dans 55 pays est estimé à 140,8 millions.². Les besoins humanitaires du Burundi et de l’Irak avaient déjà été anticipés dans l’Aperçu de la situation humanitaire mondiale de cette année.
Les plans visent à fournir une assistance à 105,7 millions de personnes.

Saudi Arabia: Desert Locust situation update 14 May 2019

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Iran (Islamic Republic of), Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Yemen

A second generation of spring breeding is underway in Saudi Arabia and Iran

As a result of unusually good ecological conditions, a second generation of breeding is expected to cause a further increase of locusts in the spring breeding areas of Saudi Arabia and Iran.

In Saudi Arabia, spring breeding started earlier than normal this year and is also more distributed throughout the interior: along the eastern side of the Asir Mountains (March–present), in central areas between Riyadh and Hail (February–present), in the northeast between Jubail and Kuwait (March–present), and along the western edge of the Empty Quarter between Wadi Dawasir and Riyadh (April–present). A second generation of breeding is underway in central areas with egg-laying in the last week of April and hatching that may have already started. Ground and aerial teams treated 16,430 ha on 1-10 May.

In Kuwait, late instar hopper groups and bands were seen near Al Wafra and the Saudi Arabia border since the last week of April. Many of these started to fledge about a week ago and are likely to form groups of immature adults and perhaps a small swarm if not controlled. The infestations are likely to have originated from breeding that occurred in March along inaccessible border areas by swarms that moved enroute from Saudi Arabia to the southern coast of Iran. Control operations have treated 50 ha since 28 April. A few swarms may also appear from adjacent areas of Saudi Arabia.

In Jordan, an immature swarm arrived in the south near Al Jafr on 4 May that was controlled the next day. On 5 May, another immature swarm flew over the same area and reached Tafilah (south of Amman) where it was treated by air. In all, control operations treated 460 ha. The swarms are likely to have originated from breeding areas in Saudi Arabia and migrated during a brief period of southerly winds. A few more swarms could appear during periods of southerly winds, and perhaps reach southern areas of Syria or Israel.

In Yemen, locals reported several immature and mature swarms moving in the highlands between Dhamer and north of Sana'a during the past week. These swarms originated from breeding several months ago in the Empty Quarter. A ground survey is underway in the interior between Marib, Ataq and Shabwah where so far scattered adults and a few groups have been seen. Egg-laying is in progress in a few areas, and hatching is likely by the end of May with hopper groups and small bands forming in June.

In Iran, hopper and adult groups and a few hopper bands are present along parts of the coast from west of Bandar Lengeh to the Pakistan border and in the Jaz Murian Basin of the interior. A second generation of spring breeding started in late April with substantial hatching this past week that will cause more hopper groups and bands to form, which could give rise to new adult groups and swarms starting about mid-June if not controlled. Intensive control operations treated more than 18,000 ha so far in May. There is a risk that a few adult groups or small swarms could appear from Arabia at times.

In Pakistan, small-scale breeding continues in coastal areas of Baluchistan where limited control was carried out against a few hopper groups. Hoppers will start to fledge and become immature adults at the end of May and continue to about mid-June. At that time, local infestations could be supplemented by adult groups and small swarms arriving from Iran.

The longer-term outlook suggests that there is a moderate risk of a few swarms migrating after mid-June from the spring breeding areas to the summer breeding areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border and also the interior of Sudan. The scale of the migration depends on the success of current survey and control operations. Therefore, all affected-countries should maintain these operations and report on time. FAO DLIS will continue to monitor the situation closely and keep all countries informed.

World: Centrality of Protection in Humanitarian Action – GPC 2018 Review

Source: Protection Cluster
Country: Afghanistan, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, World, Yemen

The new centrality of protection in humanitarian action 2018 review is out. The five country case studies selected for the 2018 GPC Review (Afgha...

Uganda: Uganda – Refugee Statistics April 2019 – Kampala

Source: Government of Uganda, UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Burundi, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Pakistan, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Uganda, Yemen

Uganda: Uganda Refugees & Asylum Seekers as of 30-April-2019

Source: Government of Uganda
Country: Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, ...

World: Global Humanitarian Overview 2019 Monthly Funding Update – April 2019

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Iraq, Jordan, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Myanmar, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

The Global Humanitarian Overview published on 4 December announced funding requirements of $21.9 billion for 21 Humanitarian Response Plans and the Venezuela Regional Refugee and Migrant Response Plan (RMPP). By the end of March, mainly as a result of publication of the Syria HRP requiring $3.32 billion, the requirements had reached $25.11 billion. This month’s increase in requirements for the revised Zimbabwe Flash Appeal (following Cyclone Idai) from $233.8 million to $293.9 million, brings the total requirement as at 30 April to $25.17 million.

Financial requirements for the Burundi and Iraq Humanitarian Response Plans, which were both published recently, are as anticipated in the annual, global appeal.

As at the end of April, 140.8 million people are estimated to be in need in 54 countries.2 This is the same number as at the end of the previous month. Humanitarian needs in Burundi and Iraq had already been anticipated in the annual, global appeal.

The plans aim to provide assistance for 105.7 million people.

World: Joint Statement: 22 NGOs Call for Action to Strengthen the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict

Source: Concern Worldwide, InterAction, Amnesty International, War Child International, Norwegian Refugee Council, Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict, CARE, Handicap International - Humanity & Inclusion, Human Rights Watch, Action Against Hunger USA, Oxfam, International Rescue Committee, Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de I'Homme, Save the Children, World Vision, Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, Center for Civilians in Conflict, Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack, PAX
Country: Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Libya, Myanmar, Nigeria, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, World, Yemen

This year marks the 20th anniversary of the Security Council taking up the protection of civilians in armed conflict on its agenda, as well as two important resolutions passed in 1999: Resolution 1265 on the protection of civilians in armed conflict and Resolution 1270, which included the first explicit protection of civilians mandate for a United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operation. This year also marks the 70th anniversary of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. We collectively urge Security Council members, the UN Secretary-General, and all UN Member States to take full advantage of the opportunity of these important anniversaries to meaningfully improve civilian protection in country-specific situations and advance an ambitious vision for the protection of civilians agenda.

There have been important strides in advancing the protection of civilians over the past twenty years, including through Security Council resolutions, the development of policy by the UN, and actions taken at the national level by governments and determined civil society actors to prioritize protection. These developments have been buoyed by the robust framework of international humanitarian law (IHL) and international human rights law (IHRL), which were developed to limit the impact of war on civilians and safeguard the security and dignity of human beings.

Yet, as we mark these important developments, civilians continue to suffer disproportionately from the devastating consequences of armed conflict. In Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Libya, Myanmar, Nigeria, South Sudan, Syria, Yemen and far too many other conflict situations, civilians are paying the highest price for the failure of parties to armed conflict – and those Member States that support them – to abide by the norms and laws that safeguard humanity.

Civilians are routinely targeted, as are the places in which they live, work, study, worship, or seek or provide medical care or humanitarian aid. Explosive weapons with wide-area effects are employed in populated areas, with devastating and generational consequences. Conflict-related sexual violence and gender-based violence are occurring at shocking levels, with women and girls facing heightened risk of sexual and gender-based violence during conflict. We are also witnessing a worrying retreat from multilateralism and the rules-based international order, which creates a permissive environment for violations and abuses against civilians in conflict zones.

The international community must collectively turn this worrying tide. We urge Security Council Members, the UN Secretary-General, and all UN Member States to take determined action to strengthen the protection of civilians and stand up for the norms and laws that are essential to safeguard civilians in conflict.

The upcoming UN Security Council Open Debate on the Protection of Civilians on May 23 is a crucial opportunity for Security Council members, the UN Secretary-General, and all UN Member States to make concrete commitments and pledges to strengthen the protection of civilians in armed conflict during the anniversary year and over the years to come. The following issues and recommendations should be the focus of collective action:

To Members of the Security Council: Use your voice and vote to prioritize the protection of civilians in the decisions and deliberations of the Council.

● Publicly recognize and affirm the protection of civilians in armed conflict as one of the core issues on the agenda of the Security Council. Recommit to fully implementing the provisions of Council resolutions on the protection of civilians, including resolutions 1894, 2175, 2286, and 2417, as well as thematic resolutions on children and armed conflict, women, peace and security, and sexual violence in armed conflict. Systematically call on all parties to armed conflict to take all feasible steps to ensure the protection of civilians. Respect and ensure respect for IHL by ceasing support for parties to armed conflict where there are serious allegations or risks of violations of IHL and violations or abuses of IHRL.

● Unequivocally condemn violations of IHL and violations or abuses of IHRL by all parties to armed conflict. This should include consistently condemning direct and indiscriminate attacks on civilians, deliberate targeting of schools, hospitals and other civilian infrastructure, and arbitrary denial of humanitarian access. Ensure that there are consequences for state and non-state actors who deliberately violate or disregard their obligations, including through accountability mechanisms. Consistently support the creation of international, independent investigative mechanisms in situations of armed conflict where there are significant civilian casualties. Commit to make the reports of such mechanisms public to bring greater transparency to the Security Council’s work in pursuit of accountability for grave violations and to deter future violations. Encourage parties to armed conflict to decisively and transparently investigate allegations of civilian harm committed by their forces.

● Strengthen the ability of UN peacekeeping operations to protect civilians by providing political support to these missions and ensuring they have adequate resources and capabilities to match their mandates, including Protection of Civilians Advisors, civilian and uniformed Gender Advisors, Women’s Protection Advisors, Child Protection Advisors, and the appropriate number of qualified human rights monitors. Proactively assess the performance of UN peacekeeping operations in delivering on protection of civilians mandates, including specific tasks for the protection of children, women, and people with disabilities, and ensure the full and effective implementation of the provisions of Security Council Resolution 2436 (2018). Ensure that the protection of civilians is prioritized in the context of downsizing, readjustment, or transition of peacekeeping operations.

● Support timely and decisive action aimed at preventing or ending the commission of genocide, crimes against humanity or war crimes. Publicly pledge not to vote against a credible draft resolution before the Security Council on timely and decisive action aimed at halting or preventing such crimes, in line with the Accountability Coherence and Transparency Group’s Code of Conduct (A/70/621, 2015).

● Regularly convene specific briefings or informal meetings on the protection of civilians in the context of country-specific situations on the Council’s agenda. Regularly invite UN officials with specific protection mandates and experts from local, national and international civil society to brief the Council on these issues, including speakers who can provide a gender- and age-specific analysis.

To the UN Secretary-General: Deliver on commitments to lead a “global effort” in support of the protection of civilians. Speak truth to power for civilians caught in conflict.

● Follow through on the commitment in your 2017 report on the protection of civilians in armed conflict to launch a “global effort” in support of the agenda. Deliver an ambitious vision to strengthen the protection of civilians in armed conflict today and over the next twenty years. Mobilize senior UN leaders and the agencies, offices, and departments of the UN behind this effort.

● Demand an end to attacks against civilians and strongly and publicly condemn violations of IHL and violations and abuses of IHRL by all parties to armed conflict. Press parties to armed conflict to transparently investigate and thoroughly report on allegations of civilian harm.
Spare no effort in promoting accountability for violations of IHL and violations and abuses of IHRL through national, regional, ad hoc, and international judicial mechanisms, including the International Criminal Court.

● Speak out forcefully against conflict-related sexual violence, gender-based violence, disability-based violence, and all grave violations of children’s rights in armed conflict. Fully exercise your authority in listing in your reports all parties to armed conflicts found responsible for perpetrating conflict-related sexual violence and any of the six grave violations against children in armed conflict. Use your influence, good offices, and the development of Action Plans to ensure these parties take meaningful steps to address the reasons for their listing.

● Ensure UN peacekeeping operations fully implement their mandates to protect civilians and take a comprehensive and whole-of-mission approach to protection. Vigorously address any incidents of underperformance or failure to protect civilians, including through accountability measures. Take steps to ensure that peacekeeping operations minimize harm to civilians, including through support to national security forces or parallel military operations, and ensure the full implementation of the UN Human Rights Due Diligence Policy on UN Support to Non-UN Security Forces. Ensure that UN peacekeeping operations safely and meaningfully engage local communities on their protection needs, taking care to ensure that all groups, including women, youth, children, and people living with disabilities, are proactively engaged so that their perspectives and capacities shape mission efforts to respond to protection threats.

● Establish a system-wide approach to record civilian harm and ensure that UN peacekeeping operations, special political missions, and other relevant UN agencies or offices in the field have the capacity and guidance to proactively monitor, analyze trends, and publicly report on civilian harm. Regularly share gender-, disability- and age- disaggregated information and analysis on protection of civilians trends with the Security Council to better inform its deliberations and decision-making.

To All UN Member States: Prioritize the protection of civilians at the national level, share and systematize good practices, and ensure full compliance with IHL and IHRL.

● Re-state your full commitment to upholding obligations under the 1949 Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols, as well as all relevant IHRL conventions. Accede to and implement any outstanding relevant treaties and conventions, including Additional Protocol I and II to the Geneva Conventions and the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict (OPAC). Publicly commit to prioritize the protection of civilians at the national level, including through the adoption and implementation of a national policy framework on the protection of civilians, and the establishment of specific policies and mechanisms to mitigate harm to civilians and respond to civilian harm. Further commit to the systematic collection of information and disaggregated data regarding civilian harm, and accept and encourage information from civil society regarding threats to civilians and civilian harm incidents. Fully promote and ensure accountability and transparency for violations of IHL and IHRL.

● Adopt and implement key policies and political declarations related to the protection of civilians agenda, including: developing, implementing and financing National Action Plans on Women, Peace and Security, and endorsing and implementing the Paris Principles and the Safe Schools Declaration.

● Support efforts towards the adoption of a multilateral political declaration on explosive weapons in populated areas during the 20th anniversary year. Such a declaration should commit states to avoid the use of explosive weapons with wide-area effects in populated areas given their devastating humanitarian impact on individuals and communities, including deaths, injuries and damage to vital civilian infrastructure, and the high likelihood of indiscriminate effects. Commit to develop strong national standards and restrictions on the use of explosive weapons with wide-area effects in populated areas. Review and strengthen policies and practices with a view to avoiding the use of explosive weapons in populated areas. Gather and make available relevant data, including through civilian harm tracking and civilian casualty recording processes. Contribute to assisting victims and their communities in addressing civilian harm from the effects of explosive weapons.

● Publicly recognize that the protection of civilians must be a priority objective in any security partnership and share best practices that would enable improvements in the protection of civilians by partner security forces. Clearly identify conditions regarding the protection of civilians that would trigger downgrading or termination of security partnerships. Strictly comply with the Arms Trade Treaty, which can help protect civilians in even the most difficult situations by placing IHL and IHRL at the center of decisions on whether or not to transfer arms.

● Reaffirm the core humanitarian principles, including that of impartiality which makes no distinction in the protection of rights of those at risk on the basis of nationality, race, gender, religious belief, class or political opinions, and states that humanitarian action should be independent and free from political influence. Recommit to facilitating timely and safe access to humanitarian assistance and protection to affected civilians, without any obstacles created by disproportionate military tactics or unreasonable bureaucratic impediments. Include humanitarian exemptions in any counter-terrorism legislation and policies to prevent unintended consequences or restrictions on humanitarian assistance. Explicitly condemn instances of killings and attacks on humanitarian and medical workers and ensure accountability for such attacks.

● Publicly recognize the importance of UN peacekeeping operations fully delivering on mandates to protect civilians. Take steps to implement the provisions of the Declaration of Shared Commitments on UN Peacekeeping Operations, particularly those commitments on strengthening the protection of civilians, improving performance and accountability, and sustaining peace, in order to ensure that momentum behind peacekeeping reform is maintained. Endorse and implement the Kigali Principles on the Protection of Civilians and the Vancouver Principles on Peacekeeping and the Prevention of the Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers.

Endorsing Organizations:

Action Against Hunger
Amnesty International
Article 36
CARE
Center for Civilians in Conflict
Child Fund Alliance
Concern Worldwide US
FIDH
Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect
Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack
Human Rights Watch
Humanity & Inclusion
InterAction
The International Network on Explosive Weapons
International Rescue Committee
Norwegian Refugee Council
Oxfam
PAX
Save the Children
War Child
Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict
World Vision International

World: CrisisInSight: Humanitarian Access Overview (May 2019)

Source: Assessment Capacities Project
Country: Afghanistan, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Colombia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iraq, Libya, Mali, Myanmar, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

INTRODUCTION

ACAPS Humanitarian Access Overview provides a snapshot of the most challenging contexts regarding humanitarian access.

ACAPS analysts looked into nine indicators to rank and compare the humanitarian access levels worldwide. Affected populations in more than 50 countries are not getting proper humanitarian assistance due to access constraints.
Humanitarian access has deteriorated in Colombia, Iraq, Myanmar, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Somalia over the past six months. 13 new countries entered the ranking since the latest ACAPS Humanitarian Access report released in August 2018.

Physical constraints and restriction/obstruction of access to services and assistance are the most common challenges

Yemen: Security Council Report Monthly Forecast, May 2019

Source: Security Council Report
Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Chad, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Haiti, Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, occupied Palestinian territory, Somalia, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Yemen

Overview

Indonesia will hold the presidency in May. An open debate on peacekeeping focused on better training to improve the safety and security and performance of UN peacekeepers is planned. Indonesian Foreign Minister Retno Marsudi will chair the meeting. Secretary-General António Guterres; the force commander of the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lieutenant General Elias Rodrigues Martins Filho; and the director of the secretariat of the International Forum for the Challenges of Peace Operations, Björn Holmberg, are expected to brief.

The other open debate in May is on protection of civilians in conflict with a focus on community engagement as a means of enhancing the protection of civilians.

There are several mandate renewals related to African issues: UNISFA in Abyei and AMISOM in Somalia, as well as for the 2206 South Sudan Sanctions Committee and its Panel of Experts.

Other African issues include:

  • Burundi, on the political situation;
  • Libya, briefings by the ICC Prosecutor, the chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee, and by the head of UNSMIL;
  • Somalia, a briefing on UNSOM; and
  • Sahel, a briefing on the activities of the joint force of the Group of Five for the Sahel.

A briefing and consultations on the UN Assistance Mission in Iraq is scheduled ahead of its mandate renewal. In addition, the following Middle East issues will be considered:

  • Lebanon, on the implementation of resolution 1559;
  • Syria, the monthly briefings on the humanitarian situation, the political process and the use of chemical weapons; and
  • Yemen, an update on the implementation of resolution 2452, which established the UN Mission to support the Hodeidah Agreement.

Regarding Europe, Council members are expecting to discuss the Secretary-General’s report on the negotiations on Cyprus. There will also be the biannual debate on Bosnia and Herzegovina.

On Asia, the Council will be briefed in consultations on the work of the 1718 DPRK Sanctions Committee.

The annual briefing by the chairs of the three counter-terrorism subsidiary bodies is also expected.

The Council may meet to discuss the transition of the UN Mission for Justice Support in Haiti (MINUJUSTH) as the Secretary-General is scheduled to submit details for a follow-up mission this month.

It is likely that there will be two Arria-formula meetings: on Palestine and on peacebuilding.

Afghanistan: Japan Donates USD 8.3 Million to Humanitarian Mine Action

Source: UN Mine Action Service
Country: Afghanistan, Iraq, Japan, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic
The United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) is pleased to announce receipt of a contribution from the Government of Japan in the amou...

World: Japan Donates USD 8.3 Million to Humanitarian Mine Action

Source: UN Mine Action Service
Country: Afghanistan, Iraq, Japan, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, World
The United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) is pleased to announce receipt of a contribution from the Government of Japan in t...

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