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World: Fighting Cholera – Operational Handbook: Response to outbreaks and risk prevention in endemic areas

Source: Solidarités International
Country: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, World, Yemen

INTRODUCTION

SOLIDARITÉS INTERNATIONAL has made the fight against cholera one of its key priorities for several years, in ...

Ethiopia: UNHCR Ethiopia Fact Sheet December 2018

Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Yemen

Ethiopia is host to the second largest refugee population in Africa, sheltering 905,831 registered refugees and asylum seekers as of 31 August 2018.

Approximately 231,000 of all the refugees in Ethiopia, have gone through the comprehensive (L3) registration, helping to develop a system to better manage and assist refugees.

As a Cluster lead for Protection, CCCM and Shelter, UNHCR continues to be actively participating in the humanitarian response to the IDPs situation in Gedeo and West Guji, supporting the authorities with site management and the coordination of responses to protection needs. UNHCR is also providing emergency kits to the displaced people.

**Working with Partners ■ UNHCR's main government counterpart to ensure the protection of refugees in Ethiopia is the Agency for Refugee and Returnee Affairs (ARRA). In addition, UNHCR works in close coordination with some 50 humanitarian partners and is part of the Humanitarian Country Team in Ethiopia, where refugee programmes are discussed strategically to ensure the needs of refugees are adequately presented and addressed across the UN System. UNHCR is also building on a well-established coordination fora, including the inter-sector Refugee Coordination Group, together with national and regional sector working groups. As part of the CRRF, UNHCR is furthering partnerships with line ministries, regional and local authorities, as well as development partners.

Main Activities

Protection

■ UNHCR Ethiopia has prepared action plans to mainstream the prevention of, mitigation and response to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) in the different sectors including Education, Child Protection, Health and Nutrition,
WASH, Shelter and Energy.

■ In preparation for the roll-out of Community Based Complaints Mechanism (CBCM) for Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PSEA) in 2019, CBCM action plans have already been developed for the camps in the Afar and Tirgay regions.

■ The SGBV e-learning Level 1 online course has been introduced as a mandatory course to all UNHCR staff in Ethiopia.

Education

■ A total of 806 refugee youth have been placed in different public universities during the 2018/19 academic year, 505 of them sponsored by the government of Ethiopia and 301 by the government of Germany under its DAFI scholarships programme. This is on top of the 2,300 refugee students who were enrolled in institutions of higher learning in Ethiopia in 2017/18 academic year.
Data for the 2018/19 primary and secondary school enrolment rate are still being compiled, but based on 2017/2018 reports, enrolment rates at the primary and secondary levels stood at 72% and 12%, respectively. Gaps in the provision of education include a lack of available classroom space and trained teachers, and scholastic materials, including books, libraries, ICT centres and laboratory facilities and supplies. The average teacher to student ratio is 1:80, with only 56% of teachers having formal qualifications to teach at the primary school level. Over 300 refugee teachers are currently enrolled in teachers’ training colleges and are expected to help address the shortage of qualified teachers upon graduation.

Health

■ So far in 2018, a total of 938,644 persons have received consultations across the health facilities in refugee camps, including 12% from the host communities. No disease outbreak was reported from any of the refugee camps. The health facility utilization rate has remained within the normal limit of 1.1 consultations per refugee per year vis-a-vis the standard range of 1-4. The mortality rate in children under five remains low at 0.1/1000/month. A total of 5,728 patients were referred to higher health facilities outside the refugee camps for further diagnosis and treatment. Out of 16,197 live births, 15,735 (97.2%) were assisted by skilled birth attendants. A total of 44,209 refugees were tested and counselled for HIV.

Food Security and Nutrition

■ The amount of general ration provided to refugees remained less than the minimum requirement of 2,100 Kcal per person per day, ranging from 1,737 Kcal in Gambella, Melkadida, Assosa and Jijiga to 1,920 Kcal in camps in the Afar and Tigray regions.
Annual nutrition surveys were conducted in 23 of the 26 refugee camps and the results showed that the global acute malnutrition (GAM) rate in 21 refugee camps is below the emergency threshold of 15%. Prevalence of anemia for children aged 6-59 months is below the emergency threshold (<40%) in 13 of the 23 camps. Interventions are being made to bring the malnutrition and anemia rates in the remaining camps to the minimum level.

Water and Sanitation

■ 12.5 million litres of water were supplied across the regions in Ethiopia hosting refugees, representing an average per capita distribution of 17 litres of water per person per day (lppd). 12 of the 26 refugee camps have achieved the minimum standard of 20 l/person/day. 19 of the 26 refugee camps have met the minimum standard of ‘maximum of 20 persons per latrine’ while 7 camps are still below the minimum standards.

Shelter and CRIs

■ A post distribution monitoring of the pilot cash based interventions (CBI) in camps around Jijiga indicated that cash is an appropriate assistance modality to refugees’ needs in Ethiopia and the preferred one too. The market response was good with no negative impact on the local economy, no reports of insecurity due to the CBI and no disruption of household and community social dynamics. The vouchers that were used to facilitate the purchase of essential aid items from the local market and the construction of improved shelters did not lead to entry of contra-bands into the market as only registered and licensed traders were contracted. Refugees said the CBI improved their purchasing power with reduced adoption of negative coping mechanisms to meet basic non-food needs. It also improved interactions between the local communities and the refugees, as demand of essential aid items in the local markets improved, leading to a positive impact on the local economy. The findings will inform the designing of programmes to expand CBI to other locations as well as to cover more aid items and services.

Camp Coordination and Camp Management

■ UNHCR and ARRA work in close coordination with partners to ensure efficient and coordinated delivery of protection and assistance to refugees. Camp coordination meetings and technical working groups take place both at the zonal and camp levels.

Access to Energy

■ UNHCR continues to seek solutions to ensure refugees’ access to energy while strengthening environmental protection activities in and around refugee camps. Response to refugees’ cooking energy needs remains a largely unmet priority. In this regard, communal kitchens and other basic facilities in Sherkole, Aysaita, Barahle and Hitsats camps are being connected to the national electricity grid as part of a pilot initiative within the operation. 33 briquette carbonizers are in place in the five camps near Assosa, and two automated briquette producing machines (1 in Assosa and 1 in Aysaiata) are also installed to increase the production of charcoal briquettes.

World: Humanitarian Funding Update December 2018 – United Nations Coordinated Appeals

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Indonesia, Iraq, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

At the end of December 2018, 21 Humanitarian Response Plans (HRP) and the Syria Regional Response Plan (3RP) required US$24.93 billion to assist 97.9 million people in urgent need of humanitarian support. The requirements remained unchanged as of the end of November 2018. The plans are funded at $14.58 billion which amounts to 58.5 per cent of financial requirements for 2018. Notably, the percentage of total funding contributed through humanitarian response plans carried out by the UN with partners in 2018 is estimated at 62.9%. This is higher than at any time in the last ten years except 2017 (66.2 per cent). The plans were funded at $14.58 billion which amounted to 58.5 per cent of financial requirements for 2018.

Global requirements finished the year $230 million higher than for December 2017, and the amount of funding reported against UN-coordinated appeals at the end of 2018 was $78 million higher than at this time last year.

To make information on vulnerable people’s needs, planned response, funding and funding gaps in humanitarian crises accessible to all in one place, on 4 December, OCHA announced the launch of a new web-based portal, Humanitarian Insight.

Pooled Funds

With $945 million received from 32 Member States, one crown dependency and the general public through the UN Foundation, 2018 became the fifth consecutive year of record-high contributions received for country-based pooled funds (CBPFs). The increased contributions to CBPFs are testament to donors’ trust in this funding mechanism as a tool for principled, transparent and inclusive humanitarian assistance. Globally, a total of $756 million was allocated during the calendar year to 1,334 projects implemented by 657 partners, with two-thirds of overall CBPF allocations disbursed to NGOs. Over 24 percent were directly allocated to local and national NGOs, amounting to some $183 million. Health, emergency shelter and non-food items, water, sanitation and hygiene, food security, nutrition and protection were the largest funded sectors during 2018. In 2018, the Yemen Humanitarian Fund became the largest CBPF ever, allocating $188 million to 53 partners implementing 112 projects. The country-based funds in Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, South Sudan and Turkey each allocated over $50 million.

Between 1 January and 31 December 2018, the Emergency Relief Coordinator approved the largest amount of funding from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) in a single year with a total of $500 million. This includes $320 million from the Rapid Response Window and $180 million from the Underfunded Emergencies Window, for life-saving activities in 49 countries. In December, a total of $12.8 million was released to assist Congolese returnees and people expelled from Angola, to meet needs outstanding since the October earthquake in Haiti, and to support people affected by flooding in Nigeria.

Specific appeal information

On 17 December, the Palestinian Authority and the Humanitarian Coordinator for the occupied Palestinian territory launched the 2019 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) for $350 million to address critical humanitarian needs of 1.4 million Palestinians in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. A full 77 per cent of the requested funds target Gaza where the humanitarian crisis has been aggravated by a massive rise in Palestinian casualties due to demonstrations. Israel’s prolonged blockade, the internal Palestinian political divide and recurrent escalations of hostilities necessitate urgent humanitarian assistance for people assessed as being most in need of protection, food, health care, shelter, water and sanitation in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.

A three-month Operational Plan for Rapid Response to Internal Displacement issued on 31 December seeks $25.5 million to reach civilians displaced by inter-communal violence in Ethiopia. The plan focuses exclusively on addressing health, nutrition, education, water, sanitation and hygiene, non-food items, protection and agriculture issues related to recent violence-induced displacements around Kamashi and Assoss (Benishangul Gumuz region) and East and West Wollega (Oromia region). Nearly 250,000 people have been displaced in these regions since September 2018. The plan has been developed to bridge the period between now and the official launch of the 2019 Humanitarian and Disaster Resilience Plan (HDRP). The needs and requirements for the Benishangul Gumuz-East/West Wollega response will be included in the HDRP.

On 13 December, Assistant-Secretary-General/Deputy Emergency Relief Coordinator (ASG/DERC) Ursula Mueller delivered a statement to the Security Council on the humanitarian situation in Ukraine, where more than 3,000 civilians have been killed and up to 9,000 injured since conflict began in 2014. The crisis affects over 30 per cent of elderly people in the country, the highest proportion of people in this category in the world. The 2018 Humanitarian Response Plan, which required $187 million, was only 32 per cent funded. Without adequate funds, food, healthcare, water and sanitation, and other life-saving assistance cannot be provided.

During a 14 December briefing the USG/ERC and the Special Envoy for Yemen urged the Security Council to act swiftly to ensure full implementation of the Stockholm Agreement to demilitarize ports in the country. The agreement requires mutual withdrawal of forces from Hodeida city and its ports and a governorate-wide ceasefire to allow desperately needed humanitarian assistance to flow. The USG/ERC encouraged all parties to continue to engage seriously in implementing the multiple agreements reached in Sweden. The Government of Yemen requires billions of dollars in external support for its 2019 budget, and in parallel this year’s humanitarian response plan for Yemen requests $4 billion, about half of it for emergency food assistance.

On 11 December at a meeting in New York on the gravity of the humanitarian situation in the Central African Republic, OCHA reiterated that response to this crisis is a priority for the organization and announced that in 2019 a high-level meeting will be arranged to address the impact of underfunding on the level of humanitarian response in the Central African Republic.

In 2019 twelve countries will have multi-year HRPs. These are Afghanistan, Cameroon, CAR, Chad, DRC, Haiti, Niger, Nigeria, oPt, Somalia, Sudan and Ukraine.

World: Preventive Priorities Survey: 2019

Source: Council on Foreign Relations
Country: Afghanistan, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Croatia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, India, Iraq, Montenegro, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Serbia, Somalia, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

U.S. foreign policy experts assess the likelihood and impact of thirty potential crises or conflicts around the world in the coming year in CFR’s annual survey.

Download PDF

Each year since 2008, the Council on Foreign Relations’ Center for Preventive Action (CPA) has asked foreign policy experts to rank thirty ongoing or potential conflicts based on their likelihood of occurring or escalating in the next year and their potential impact on U.S. national interests.

“The annual Preventive Priorities Survey is unique in providing a regular, forward-looking assessment of conflict and instability around the world in a way that helps policymakers focus attention on the most important risks,” explains Paul B. Stares, General John W. Vessey senior fellow for conflict prevention and CPA director.

Read more on Council on Foreign Relations.

Democratic Republic of the Congo: EU Civil Protection Mechanism – Requests for Assistance: 2014 – 2018 – ECHO Daily Map | 03/01/2019

Source: European Commission's Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations
Country: Albania, Angola, Armenia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Bulgaria, Cabo Verde, Chile, Croatia, Cyprus, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominica, Ecuador, Fiji, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Italy, Latvia, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Montenegro, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Norway, occupied Palestinian territory, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Romania, Senegal, Serbia, Sint Maarten (The Netherlands), Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, Yemen

World: 2019 Early Warning Forecast – Conflict & Climate: Drivers of Disaster

Source: Lutheran World Relief
Country: Cameroon, Chad, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Jordan, Lebanon, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Peru, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

The 2019 Early Warning Forecast, a publication of Lutheran World Relief and IMA World Health

BALTIMORE, Jan. 2, 2019 - Lutheran World Relief (LWR), an international NGO working to develop sustainable solutions to poverty, and IMA World Health, a faith-based agency that helps vulnerable communities to address their public health challenges, have released the 2019 Early Warning Forecast of regions they are monitoring for potential or worsening humanitarian crises over the coming year: Conflict & Climate: Drivers of Disaster.

Ambassador Daniel V. Speckhard, president & CEO, noted that armed conflict is a thread running through the world's current crises. "These will be two of the most critical driving forces behind humanitarian emergencies over the next year and into the foreseeable future, even if their effects are indirect," he said.

"Armed conflict continues to cause some of the world's largest and most direct humanitarian crises, including the war in Yemen, the ongoing conflict in Syria and fighting in South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is the source of the highest levels of displacement on record, according to the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees. An unprecedented 65.3 million people have been forced from their homes, more than half of them children," Speckhard said.

Speckhard noted that climate change has also been identified as a major driver behind the recent increase in global hunger, after years of promising decline, as well as the cause of severe food crises.

"The negative impact of climate change on global food production, its impact on food security and livelihoods, and increased degradation of natural resources all makes this a vicious circle that threatens to spiral downward without immediate, decisive action," he said.

The countries and regions on the 2019 Watch List include:

  • Yemen: the world's worst humanitarian catastrophe

  • Are superstorms the new normal?

  • A legacy of suffering in the Democratic Republic of Congo

  • Undermining the Palestinian health system in East Jerusalem

  • Venezuela fuels a regional crisis

  • A regional crisis deteriorates in the Lake Chad Basin

  • The shrinking humanitarian space

The 2019 Early Warning Forecast can be downloaded at https://lwr.exposure.co/conflict-climate-drivers-of-disaster.

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