Active Flow Monitoring Network
– Burundi 8 FMPs
– Djibouti 6 FMPs
– Ethiopia 5 FMPs
– Somalia 7 FMPs
– South Sudan 22 FMPs
– Uganda 14 FMPs
A network of 62 Flow Monitoring Points (FMPs) are currently operational across six countries, including 15 FMPs focused on Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) preparedness activities in South Sudan.
The flow monitoring registry (FMR) continued at eight points in Burundi, whilst nine points were operational in Djibouti, only data from six FMPs was used to minimize duplication. In Ethiopia, FMR and survey data collection continued at five FMPs at various official and unofficial border crossing points. Somalia also continued to conduct flow monitoring activities through FMPs in seven locations.
In South Sudan, flow monitoring activities were carried out at FMPs in Malakal (2),
Tonga (1), Wau Town (2), Abyei (1) and Paloich (1). Flow monitoring activities which are assisting in EVD preparedness operations were conducted at an additional 15 FMPs along South Sudan’s southern borders with the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and the Central African Republic (CAR). Displacement site flow monitoring (DSFM) was also carried out at eight entry and exit points to track movements in and out of Protection of Civilian (PoC) sites and collective sites in Bentiu, Malakal and Wau.
Flow monitoring in Uganda expanded to 14 FMPs, six of which are located along the border with South Sudan and are operated in close coordination with the DTM South Sudan team. The remaining eight active FMPs are located along the border with the DRC.
Regionally, 244,346 movements were tracked during April. This represents a six per cent increase compared to the 233,061 movements tracked in March.
These movements include migration from the Horn of Africa (HoA) countries (Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Somalia), as well as shorter-term incident-based movements tracked in other East African countries (Burundi, South Sudan, and Uganda).
Around a fifth of the tracked movements were moving along the various migratory corridors that are important in the HoA region (22%). Of these, the majority were Ethiopian nationals (68%) and the secondlargest population was Somali nationals (27%), which is comparable to what was observed in March (65% and 31% respectively).
Of the total movements, 78 per cent of those tracked were incident-based movements, mainly between Uganda and the DRC (55%), Burundi and the United Republic of Tanzania (24%), and between South Sudan and Uganda (16%). Of these incident-based movements, the majority of those tracked were Congolese nationals (33%), while the second largest population group was Uganda nationals (26%).
In the HoA region, 27 per cent of individuals reported their intention to travel to Yemen, though these individuals are most likely travelling to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) – this is much higher than the 11 per cent that was reported in March., most likely due to upcoming Ramadan. An additional 21 per cent also reported their intention to travel to the KSA (down from 31% in March), and 24 per cent said they were travelling to Somalia (approximately the same as the 25% reported in the previous month). A further 14 per cent reported their intention of travelling to Ethiopia (a reduction from 19% in March), and another seven per cent were headed towards Djibouti, which is equal to the percentage seen in March, though most of these are also likely to try and make their way onwards to KSA.
In Burundi in April, flow monitoring continued at eight FMPs in the provinces of Cankuzo, Muyinga, Rutana, and Ruyigi, located along the border between Burundi and the United Republic of Tanzania.
During the reporting period, 46,630 movements were observed at these eight FMPs. This represents a 12 per cent increase when compared to the 40,836 movements tracked in March.
The majority of these movements were Burundian nationals (83%), while the remaining were Tanzanian (17%). The number of incoming movements (48%) was moderately lower than the number of outgoing movements (52%). All the migration was observed between the neighbouring countries of Burundi and the United Republic of Tanzania.
Most movements were adult males (39%), and 29 per cent were children. Nine per cent of the tracked individuals were pregnant or lactating women, and 10 per cent of the population were children aged five years or below. Eighty-two per cent of individuals observed stated they were migrating locally and for short time periods (less than six months). Thirteen per cent of individuals said they were moving for tourism. Two per cent declared their movements were due to seasonal migration and another two per cent were migrating for economic reasons. Most individuals had been travelling by boat (52%), or by foot (41%), with the remaining seven per cent using land vehicles, including bicycles (5%).
In Djibouti, during the reporting period, 11,050 movements were observed at six FMPs. This represents a nine per cent decrease in the number of people observed compared to the March 2019. The decrease is attributed to changes in migration trends in early 2019 which were impacted by the capsizing of a boat carrying migrants in January. The DTM Djibouti team is currently carrying out another round of assessments in areas of high mobility in order to establish FMPs in the most appropriate locations.
All the migration movements tracked through Djibouti during April consisted of Ethiopian nationals (100%). This is consistent with the percentages reported in the previous month.
Nearly all movements had departed from Ethiopia (99.6%). Most individuals (84.3%) aimed to travel to KSA, this is less than the 88 per cent which was reported in March.
In a trend that is typical for migration in Djibouti, most migrants tracked were adult males (58.8%), and 18.5 per cent were children, which is slightly lower than the 20 per cent reported in March. Economic migration, for more than six months, was the most commonly cited motivation for migration (indicated by 96% of migrants tracked). Less than four per cent (4%) cited forced movement due to conflict as their motivation for migration with the remaining (0.6%) identifying natural disasters as their main reason for migrating. This is a slight change from March, when 98 per cent of movement were due to economic opportunities, and one per cent were forced movements. Most migration occurred on foot (83%), or by taxi/car (10%).
In Ethiopia, during the reporting period, 10,041 movements were observed through five FMPs, which represents a 13 per cent decrease from the 11,571 movements observed in March 2019. The decrease in movements were thought to be in part related to the hotter climatic conditions, more stringent measures against irregular migration in Somalia, the current political situation of Sudan, a public holiday and a migratory route change from Galafi to Elidahar – Bure manda border and Asaita via Afambo (after the opening Ethio-Eritrea border).
The majority of the migration observed consisted of Ethiopian nationals (82%), seven per cent were Somalis, and four per cent Eritrean. Other nationalities constituted the remaining seven per cent. Most movements were outgoing from Ethiopia (66%), while the remaining were incoming movements (34%). Most of the incoming movements were from Sudan (61%) which is slightly lower than the 62 per cent observed in March. Fourteen per cent were from Djibouti (same as March), eleven per cent from Eritrea, eight per cent from Somalia, five per cent from Yemen, and the remaining one per cent from various other countries.
Regarding intended destinations, most of the outgoing flows were heading to the KSA (43%), Djibouti (21%), Yemen (8%), Sudan (8%), Italy (4%) with the remaining 16 per cent heading to various other countries.
The majority of the migrants tracked were adult men (57%) while 11 per cent were children. Of the total number of observed individuals, two per cent were children under the age of five and six per cent were unaccompanied children (577 children).
Two per cent of the total migrating population were pregnant or lactating women.
Economic migration was still the most commonly cited reason for migration (73%), followed by short term local movements (11%), and forced movement due to conflict (6%). Most migration was carried out on buses or trucks (73%). Twelve per cent travelled on taxis and cars, seven per cent travelled on foot, while seven per cent travelled on trains.
In Somalia, during the reporting period, 32,933 movements were observed across seven FMPs. This represents a significant increase (41%) compared to March when 23,407 movements were observed. The increase in volume, particularly in the Bossaso FMP, can be attributed to a perceived reduction in border management and anti-trafficking operations conducted by the Government of Puntland.
Most identified movements (61%) were incoming in comparison to outgoing (39%).
This differs considerably to what was observed in March 2019, when 52 per cent of movements were incoming and 48 per cent outgoing movements.
As in March 2019, Buuhoodle Flow Monitoring Point (Ethiopian border) recorded the highest levels of incoming flows for April (28% of all incoming flows), while Bossaso continued to record the highest number of outgoing flows (69% of all outgoing flows). Migrants identified were mostly Ethiopian (54%), Somali (42%), and Djiboutian (4%).
Most migrants observed intended to travel to Somalia (39%), this is much lower than the 48 per cent reported in the previous month. Twelve per cent of migrants intended to travel to Ethiopia, while 42 per cent indicated wanting to cross the Gulf of Aden and travel to Yemen (an increase from the 20% reported in March). Four per cent reported the intention to travel to Kenya whilst two per cent reported their intentions to travel to Djibouti. In a slight departure from the trends seen in previous months, there was a majority of adult males observed in the current month (49%), while 25 per cent of the migrating population were children, six per cent were children under five years of age and unaccompanied children constituted three per cent of the total migrating population.