This report provides examples and lessons learned from combining official development assistance (ODA) resources and non-ODA resources by donors to countries experiencing conflict and fragility. Some donors, such as the UK, have created cross-departmental funds for responding to conflict and insecurity that make funds available to a wider range of government departments within the donor government. It should be noted, however, that although investments beyond aid are particularly important given their sheer scale, the availability and accessibility of data and literature on international peace and security resource flows to fragile and conflict-affected countries beyond aid is weak. This gap is reinforced by the lack of clarity about what non-ODA aid is and the general lack of literature/focus on how combining this with ODA might translate into better outcomes in fragile contexts. Hence, this review has focused on information from a few donor security/peace funds that explicitly combine ODA and non-ODA resources as part of their design. Where information is available, case studies of country programmes that used combined resources specifically have been highlighted. The review has also focused on lessons learned concerning the fund/approach itself where available. Better information is particularly needed on non-ODA resource flows to fragile contexts.
K4D helpdesk reports provide summaries of current research, evidence and lessons learned. This report was commissioned by the UK Department for International Development.